株式会社グローバルインフォメーション
TEL: 044-952-0102
表紙
市場調査レポート

フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) の世界市場:分析、シェア、動向、規模、予測

Fructooligosaccharides Market, By Source By Application and Geography - Analysis, Share, Trends, Size, & Forecast From 2014 - 2025

発行 AnalystView Market Insights 商品コード 874734
出版日 ページ情報 英文 168 Pages
納期: 2-3営業日
価格
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=109.62円で換算しております。
Back to Top
フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) の世界市場:分析、シェア、動向、規模、予測 Fructooligosaccharides Market, By Source By Application and Geography - Analysis, Share, Trends, Size, & Forecast From 2014 - 2025
出版日: 2019年05月01日 ページ情報: 英文 168 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、世界のフラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) 市場について調査分析し、市場概要、市場動向、産業分析、市場情勢、セグメント別の市場分析、主要企業などについて、体系的な情報を提供しています。

第1章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) :市場概要

  • 調査範囲
  • 前提条件と調査手法

第2章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第3章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) :主な市場動向

  • 市場促進要因
  • 市場抑制要因
  • 市場機会
  • 市場の将来動向

第4章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) :産業分析

  • ファイブフォース分析
  • マーケティング戦略分析
  • 成長見通しマッピング
  • 規制の枠組み分析

第5章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) :市場情勢

  • 市場シェア分析
  • 主要イノベーター
  • 内訳データ:主要メーカー別

第6章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) 市場:由来別

  • 概要
  • スクロース (蔗糖)
  • イヌリン

第7章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) 市場:用途別

  • 概要
  • 栄養補助食品
  • 食品・飲料
  • 乳児用調製粉乳
  • 動物飼料
  • 医薬品

第8章 フラクトオリゴ糖 (FOS) 市場:地域別

  • イントロダクション
  • 北米
  • 欧州
  • アジア太平洋地域
  • その他

第9章 主要ベンダー分析

  • Nutriagaves de Mexico
  • GTC Nutrition
  • Cargill, Incorporated
  • Sensus
  • FrieslandCampina Domo
  • Baolingbao Biology, Co.
  • Jarrow Formulas, Inc.
  • Cheil Foods & Chemicals
  • Roquette Freres
  • 明治ホールディングス
  • Cosucra Groupe Warcoing
  • BENEO-Orafti SA

第10章 アナリストの見解

第11章 付録

図表

List of Tables

  • TABLE List of data sources
  • TABLE Market drivers; Impact Analysis
  • TABLE Market restraints; Impact Analysis
  • TABLE Fructooligosaccharides market: Source snapshot (2018)
  • TABLE Segment Dashboard; Definition and Scope, by Source
  • TABLE Global Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Fructooligosaccharides market: application snapshot (2018)
  • TABLE Segment Dashboard; Definition and Scope, by application
  • TABLE Global Fructooligosaccharides market, by application 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Fructooligosaccharides market: regional snapshot (2018)
  • TABLE Segment Dashboard; Definition and Scope, by region
  • TABLE Global Fructooligosaccharides market, by region 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE North America Fructooligosaccharides market, by country, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE North America Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE North America Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE U.S. Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE U.S. Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Canada Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Canada Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Europe Fructooligosaccharides market, by country, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Europe Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Europe Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Germany Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Germany Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE U.K. Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE U.K. Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of the Europe Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of the Europe Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market, by country, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Japan Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Japan Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE China Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE China Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of the World Fructooligosaccharides market, by country, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of the World Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Rest of the World Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Latin America Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Latin America Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Middle East and Africa Fructooligosaccharides market, by Source, 2014-2025 (USD Million)
  • TABLE Middle East and Africa Fructooligosaccharides market, by application, 2014-2025 (USD Million)

List of Figures

  • FIGURE Fructooligosaccharides market segmentation
  • FIGURE Market research methodology
  • FIGURE Value chain analysis
  • FIGURE Porter's Five Forces Analysis
  • FIGURE Market Attractiveness Analysis
  • FIGURE Competitive Landscape; Key company market share analysis, 2018
  • FIGURE Source segment market share analysis, 2017 & 2025
  • FIGURE Source segment market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Sucrose market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Inulin market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Application segment market share analysis, 2017 & 2025
  • FIGURE Application segment market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Dietary Supplements market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Food & Beverages market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Infant Formula market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Animal Feed market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Pharmaceuticals market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Regional segment market share analysis, 2017 & 2025
  • FIGURE Regional segment market size forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE North America Fructooligosaccharides market share and leading players, 2018
  • FIGURE Europe Fructooligosaccharides market share and leading players, 2018
  • FIGURE Asia Pacific Fructooligosaccharides market share and leading players, 2018
  • FIGURE Latin America Fructooligosaccharides market share and leading players, 2018
  • FIGURE Middle East and Africa Fructooligosaccharides market share and leading players, 2018
  • FIGURE North America market share analysis by country, 2018
  • FIGURE U.S. market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Canada market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Europe market share analysis by country, 2018
  • FIGURE U.K. market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Germany market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Rest of the Europe market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Asia Pacific market share analysis by country, 2018
  • FIGURE India market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE China market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Rest of Asia Pacific market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Rest of the World market share analysis by country, 2018
  • FIGURE Latin America market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
  • FIGURE Middle East and Africa market size, forecast and trend analysis, 2014 to 2025 (USD Million)
目次

Title:
Fructooligosaccharides Market, By Source (Sucrose, and Inulin) By Application (Dietary Supplements, Food & Beverages, Infant Formula, Animal Feed, and Pharmaceuticals) and Geography (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and RoW) - Analysis, Share, Trends, Size, & Forecast From 2014 - 2025.

REPORT HIGHLIGHT

The fructooligosaccharides market was valued at USD 1.47 billion by 2017, growing with 13.4% CAGR during the forecast period, 2018-2025.

MARKET DYNAMICS

Fructooligosaccharides contain short fructose chain. They are a type of carbohydrate called oligosaccharides. It is predictable that a surge in the consumption of functional foods in Europe and North America will catalyze the development in the worldwide market for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in the following decade. There is sustained increase in the use of Fructooligosaccharides blends. They are an active ingredient in probiotic extracts. Besides, they are used as a symbiotic in products such as chocolates, bakery, drinking yogurts, and fat-reducing creams. Such a wide spread demand is projected to have a progressive effect on the market during the course of succeeding seven years. In addition, the rising demand for nutritional products in the Asia Pacific is likely to increase the industry's progression throughout the forecast period.

It is projected that the growing customer cognizance concerning the risk of prolonged ailments such as diabetes and rickets will upsurge the necessity for the product throughout the forecasted period. The induction of innovative manufacturing procedures by means of extremely proficient decontamination systems, new substrates, recombinant enzymes, and enzymatic engineering are being utilized for cost reduction. This is likely to about a proliferation in the market penetration of the product in the course of the anticipated period.

Source Takeaway

The global Fructooligosaccharides market is segmented into Sucrose and inulin. Because of easy availability of raw material of sucrose in the market, it has captured over 55% of total market share in 2017. Easy availability of raw material leads to low manufacturing cost of sucrose and this is the major driving factor of sucrose. Sucrose has grabbed maximum share in the market because of its demand in food and beverage industry. Sucrose is considered as good alternative of sugar and this aspect is anticipated to drive the market in near future.

APPLICATION TAKEAWAY

By application the market is segmented into food & beverage, dietary supplements, infant formula, pharmaceuticals, and animal feed. Surge in diary supplements is considered as the primary facet for the growth of this market. The product has wide usage in functional beverages and foods that are projected to catalyze growth in the international market. It is probable that the rising demand for FOS in baby foods and nutritional food products, predominantly in Europe owing to numerous health benefits, such as its effectiveness as a taste enhancer and better-quality mineral absorption, is the foremost aspect for the intensification in demand.

Technological improvements in product engineering in the preparation of baby food has been growing over the preceding few years. Currently, fermentation is the foremost technology being utilized by a plethora of manufacturers due to its cost-effectiveness.

Regional Takeaway

Europe captured the largest volume share of 40% in 2017 and is anticipated to continue this surge till 2025. Growing demand for FOS in infant formulation and nutritional food products is the primary factor for rising demand. The Asia Pacific has the second largest market for fructooligosaccharides. The galloping growth of general populace, lowering of mortality rate, the rise in disposable income and improved awareness of customers concerning the health benefit of the product will push the demand in the Asia Pacific region. The increasing apprehension about prolonged illnesses commanded a higher demand for functional beverages and foods that are estimated to eventually escalate the necessity for FOS over the next eight years.

KEY VENDOR TAKEAWAY

Nutriagaves de Mexico, GTC Nutrition, Cargill, Incorporated, Sensus, FrieslandCampina Domo, Baolingbao Biology, Co. , Jarrow Formulas, Inc, Cheil Foods & Chemicals, Roquette Freres, Meiji Holdings Co, Cosucra Groupe Warcoing, BENEO-Orafti SA are some of the key vendors of this market.

Presence of a large number of manufacturers has led to high competition in the market. The companies have participated in the research to develop technologies for the large-scale production of FOS. The high cost is a major problem faced by market players and is expected to challenge the growth of the industry during the forecast period.

Orafti Synergy1 of BENQ group, assist in controlling appetite and brings about a reduction in food intake in obese and overweight children. Cargill announced the closure of its plant in Lititz, Penn. Its objective is to move production to Canada to improve and expand its chocolate offerings and services for food and beverage companies.

The market size and forecast for each segment and sub-segments has been considered as below:

  • Historical Year - 2014 & 2016
  • Base Year - 2017
  • Estimated Year - 2018
  • Projected Year - 2025

TARGET AUDIENCE

  • Traders, Distributors, and Suppliers
  • Manufacturers
  • Government and Regional Agencies
  • Research Organizations
  • Consultants
  • Distributors

SCOPE OF THE REPORT

The scope of this report covers the market by its major segments, which include as follows:

MARKET, BY SOURCE

  • Sucrose
  • Inulin

MARKET, BY APPLICATION

  • Dietary Supplements
  • Food & Beverages
  • Infant Formula
  • Animal Feed
  • Pharmaceuticals

MARKET, BY REGION

  • North America
    • U.S.
    • Canada
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • France
    • Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific
    • India
    • China
    • Rest of APAC
  • Rest of the World
    • Middle East and Africa
    • Latin America

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES MARKET OVERVIEW

  • 1.1. Study Scope
  • 1.2. Assumption and Methodology

2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 2.1. Market Snippet
    • 2.1.1. Market Snippet by Source
    • 2.1.2. Market Snippet by Application
    • 2.1.3. Market Snippet by Region
  • 2.2. Competitive Insights

3. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES KEY MARKET TRENDS

  • 3.1. Market Drivers
    • 3.1.1. Impact Analysis of Market Drivers
  • 3.2. Market Restraints
    • 3.2.1. Impact Analysis of Market Restraints
  • 3.3. Market Opportunities
  • 3.4. Market Future Trends

4. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES INDUSTRY STUDY

  • 4.1. Porter's Five Forces Analysis
  • 4.2. Marketing Strategy Analysis
  • 4.3. Growth Prospect Mapping
  • 4.4. Regulatory Framework Analysis

5. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES MARKET LANDSCAPE

  • 5.1. Market Share Analysis
  • 5.2. Key Innovators
  • 5.3. Breakdown Data, by Key manufacturer
    • 5.3.1. Established Player Analysis
    • 5.3.2. Emerging Player Analysis

6. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES MARKET - BY SOURCE

  • 6.1. Overview
    • 6.1.1. Segment Share Analysis, By Source, 2017 & 2025 (%)
  • 6.2. Sucrose
    • 6.2.1. Overview
    • 6.2.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 6.3. Inulin
    • 6.3.1. Overview
    • 6.3.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)

7. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES MARKET - BY APPLICATION

  • 7.1. Overview
    • 7.1.1. Segment Share Analysis, By Application, 2017 & 2025 (%)
  • 7.2. Dietary Supplements
    • 7.2.1. Overview
    • 7.2.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 7.3. Food & Beverages
    • 7.3.1. Overview
    • 7.3.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 7.4. Infant Formula
    • 7.4.1. Overview
    • 7.4.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 7.5. Animal Feed
    • 7.5.1. Overview
    • 7.5.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 7.6. Pharmaceuticals
    • 7.6.1. Overview
    • 7.6.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)

8. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES MARKET- BY GEOGRAPHY

  • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.1.1. Segment Share Analysis, By Region, 2017 & 2025 (%)
  • 8.2. North America
    • 8.2.1. Overview
    • 8.2.2. Key Manufacturers in North America
    • 8.2.3. North America Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.2.4. North America Market Size and Forecast, By Source, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.2.5. North America Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.2.6. U.S.
    • 8.2.6.1. Overview
    • 8.2.6.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.2.7. Canada
    • 8.2.7.1. Overview
    • 8.2.7.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 8.3. Europe
    • 8.3.1. Overview
    • 8.3.2. Key Manufacturers in Europe
    • 8.3.3. Europe Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.3.4. Europe Market Size and Forecast, By Source, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.3.5. Europe Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.3.6. France
    • 8.3.6.1. Overview
    • 8.3.6.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.3.7. Germany
    • 8.3.7.1. Overview
    • 8.3.7.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.3.8. Rest of Europe
    • 8.3.8.1. Overview
    • 8.3.8.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 8.4. Asia Pacific (APAC)
    • 8.4.1. Overview
    • 8.4.2. Key Manufacturers in Asia Pacific
    • 8.4.3. Asia Pacific Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.4.4. Asia Pacific Market Size and Forecast, By Source, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.4.5. Asia Pacific Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.4.6. China
    • 8.4.6.1. Overview
    • 8.4.6.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.4.7. India
    • 8.4.7.1. Overview
    • 8.4.7.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.4.8. Rest of APAC
    • 8.4.8.1. Overview
    • 8.4.8.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
  • 8.5. Rest of the World
    • 8.5.1. Overview
    • 8.5.2. Key Manufacturers in Rest of the World
    • 8.5.3. Rest of the World Market Size and Forecast, By Country, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.5.4. Rest of the World Market Size and Forecast, By Source, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.5.5. Rest of the World Market Size and Forecast, By Application, 2014 - 2025 (US$ Million)
    • 8.5.6. Latin America
    • 8.5.6.1. Overview
    • 8.5.6.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)
    • 8.5.7. Middle East and Africa
    • 8.5.7.1. Overview
    • 8.5.7.2. Market Analysis, Forecast, and Y-O-Y Growth Rate, 2014 - 2025, (US$ Million)

9. KEY VENDOR ANALYSIS

  • 9.1. Nutriagaves de Mexico
    • 9.1.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.1.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.1.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.1.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.2. GTC Nutrition
    • 9.2.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.2.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.2.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.2.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.3. Cargill, Incorporated
    • 9.3.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.3.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.3.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.3.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.4. Sensus
    • 9.4.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.4.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.4.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.4.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.5. FrieslandCampina Domo
    • 9.5.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.5.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.5.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.5.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.6. Baolingbao Biology, Co.
    • 9.6.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.6.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.6.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.6.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.7. Jarrow Formulas, Inc.
    • 9.7.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.7.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.7.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.7.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.8. Cheil Foods & Chemicals
    • 9.8.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.8.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.8.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.8.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.9. Roquette Freres
    • 9.9.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.9.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.9.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.9.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.10. Meiji Holdings Co
    • 9.10.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.10.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.10.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.10.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.11. Cosucra Groupe Warcoing
    • 9.11.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.11.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.11.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.11.4. Strategic Initiatives
  • 9.12. BENEO-Orafti SA
    • 9.12.1. Company Snapshot
    • 9.12.2. Financial Performance
    • 9.12.3. Product Benchmarking
    • 9.12.4. Strategic Initiatives

10. 360 DEGREE ANALYSTVIEW

11. APPENDIX

  • 11.1. Research Methodology
  • 11.2. References
  • 11.3. Abbreviations
  • 11.4. Disclaimer
  • 11.5. Contact Us
Back to Top