Animal Pharm Antibiotics in Animal Production 2016
|出版日||ページ情報||英文 65 Pages
|動物生産における抗生物質 Animal Pharm Antibiotics in Animal Production 2016|
|出版日: 2016年10月30日||ページ情報: 英文 65 Pages||
当レポートでは、動物生産における抗生物質市場について調査し、動物用抗生物質の市場規模、動物における抗生物質の非治療用途 (抗生物質成長促進剤) 、抗生物質耐性に対する法律・消費者の反応、および動物生産における抗生物質成長促進剤 (AGP) に代わる戦略などについて、まとめています。
Antibiotics are probably one of the most successful forms of chemotherapy in the history of medicine. They are not only of great therapeutic value in human disease control but are equally effective in animals raised for food and in domestic pets.
Antibiotics are used in animal production as therapeutic agents to cure and control disease and also as non-therapeutic agents or as antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). The application of AGPs was discovered very soon after the introduction of antibiotics and so both applications have been widely used over the last 70 years.
However, the use of AGPs has elicited substantial controversy in relation to the development of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. This has led to the emergence of 'superbugs' such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis, bacteria which are difficult to treat with existing medicines.
There is now an enormous amount of evidence that use of antibiotics in animal production has contributed to the development of antibiotic resistance and this has serious implications for public health.
One response to the problem of antibiotic resistance is to develop non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents. Consequently, there is considerable research is being carried out to develop non-antibiotic therapeutics, using quorum sensing quenchers, iron chelators, lectin inhibitors, phage therapy, phytochemicals, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, and vaccines.
The issue of antibiotic resistance has elicited both a legislative and a consumer response. This was manifested by the EU banning all AGPs in 2006. Several member states of the EU have set up programmes designed to reduce the amounts of antibiotics used in animal production. Consumer pressure has encouraged many major meat producing companies to reduce and even eliminate antibiotic use in animal production.
Various strategies have been developed to replace AGPs in animal production although it appears that the economic consequences of the banning of AGPs in the EU have been relatively minor for the poultry industry. There has been an increased focus on the use of various feed additives such as feed enzymes, organic acids, phytochemicals, prebiotics and probiotics.
Another response to concerns about antibiotics in animal production is to develop antibiotic-free systems. This focuses on disease avoidance and health maintenance rather than using therapeutic treatments. Significant progress has been made in reducing and even eliminating antibiotics from dairy cows, pigs and poultry.