市場調査レポート

中国の消費者の資金借入に対する考え方

Consumer Attitudes Towards Debt - China - July 2014

発行 Mintel China 商品コード 310283
出版日 ページ情報 英文 151 Pages
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中国の消費者の資金借入に対する考え方 Consumer Attitudes Towards Debt - China - July 2014
出版日: 2014年07月01日 ページ情報: 英文 151 Pages
概要

2008年以降、中国の消費者金融市場は成長し続けています。融資額のうち2/3が消費ローンですが、現在でもそのほとんどが住宅ローンが占めています。ただし、今後は短期ローンの借入額も増加する見通しです。2020年には、消費者金融の融資総額はGDPの68%に達すると予想されています。ただし、消費者側は業者側に数多くの要望や不満を抱えており、それが市場の最大のギャップとなっています。

当レポートでは、中国の消費者が消費者金融(住宅ローン、自動車ローン、リフォーム用ローン、教育ローン、クレジットカードなど)に対して抱いている考え方や利用動機・形態などについて調査すると共に、金融業者側が取るべき戦略について考察し、概略以下の構成でお届けいたします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 エグゼクティブ・サマリー

第3章 課題と考察

  • 人々が融資を受ける気にさせる要因は何か?
    • 分析結果・意義
  • 消費者ローンの成長機会が存在するのはどの分野か?
  • 青年層向けローン商品市場はどうなっているのか?
  • どのような商品を開発すれば、ローンやクレジットの利用を促進できるか?

第4章 市場傾向の活用

  • 「高利貸し」の悪印象の除去
  • クレジット返済延滞者に対する保険のカバー
  • 「後で後悔するより、今やろう」

第5章 消費者金融市場の傾向

  • 要点
  • 消費者向けローン:2008年より4倍増
  • 短期消費者ローンの急成長
  • 今後の成長見通し
  • 銀行の融資利率制限の撤廃
  • 銀行業への民間資本の流入と、リテールバンク側の革新
  • オンラインP2P融資の登場
  • 消費者金融の融資額は、2020年にはGDPの2/3にまで拡大

第6章 クレジット・ローン商品の利用状況

  • 要点
  • 消費者の85%が、何らかの形の融資を受けている
  • 調査対象グループごとのクレジットカード利用状況
  • 20〜39歳がローン需要が最大となる
  • 高所得者・低所得者ごとの異なるアプローチ
  • 個人間融資:地方都市でより広く普及
  • クレジット・ローン商品利用度と教育水準との関連性

第7章 クレジット・ローン商品を利用しない理由

  • 要点
  • 「ローンを利用するという考えが無い」:最大の障壁
  • 実際の状況は、年齢層ごとに異なる

第8章 ローンの利用目的

  • 要点
  • ローン借入の最大の理由:リフォーム・投資
  • 自動車ローンの大幅成長の可能性
  • ライフステージごとのニーズに合わせたローン商品の販売
  • 大都市と地方都市との違い

第9章 ローン利用の促進要因

  • 要点
  • 消費者が最も期待していること:柔軟な規約と低いコスト
  • 所得が上がるにつれ、商品・プロセスへの注文も増える
  • 短期的資金ニーズのある若年層が利用しやすくする
  • ローンの目的に応じて異なる検討項目

第10章 消費者のクレジットカード利用慣習

  • 要点
  • 信用力の源というよりも、資金管理ツールとしての利用が多い
  • 分割払いに対する様々な見解
  • 女性の方がポイント制度に対する関心が高い
  • 海外でのクレジットカード利用と、与信限度額の引き上げ

第11章 消費者のクレジット・ローンに対する考え方

  • 要点
  • 人々は全体的に、資金借入に対してより積極的になっている
  • ただし、約半数の人々は、自分の所得の範囲内で生活することを好んでいる
  • 地方都市の人々はより保守的である
  • ローン商品について人々がより深く知るよう助けることが鍵となる
  • 大半の人々が、P2P融資サイトよりも銀行の方がより信用できると考えている
  • 人々はクレジットカードの利点についてより肯定的になっている
  • ただし、全ての人がクレジットカードへの依存に不安感を抱かない訳ではない

第12章 消費者の分類

  • 要点
  • ローン・クレジットに対する考え方の幅
  • 保守的な人々(22%)
    • 調査対象の人々に占める割合
    • 人口構造上の特徴
    • マーケティングの観点
  • 積極的な人々(42%)
  • 中立的な人々(36%)

第13章 付録:クレジット・ローン商品の利用状況(図表)

第14章 付録:クレジット・ローン商品を利用しない理由(図表)

第15章 付録:現在のローンの利用目的(図表)

第16章 付録:今後のローン利用目的(図表)

第17章 付録:ローン利用の促進要因(図表)

第18章 付録:クレジットカード利用慣習(図表)

第19章 付録:消費者のクレジット・ローンに対する考え方(図表)

第20章 付録:消費者の分類(図表)

目次

“In the near future, the biggest opportunity still lies in loans for financing large household purchases. Consumers want to have more say in the loan design, which is currently the biggest gap in the market.” - Ruyi Xu, Head of Research, China.

This report looks at the following areas:

  • What drives people's openness to borrowing?
  • What are the opportunities to grow consumption loans?
  • How to market loan products to young adults

Consumer lending in China has grown from 2008 to April 2014. About two thirds of household lending is consumption loans, in which mortgage still have a dominating share. However the next decade of growth will be increasingly driven by short-term consumption loans. Mintel predicts that by 2020, total consumer lending will account for 68% of the GDP.

On the positive side, consumers are becoming more open-minded about borrowing money, in the sense that few think this is an embarrassing behaviour. Yet they still think borrowing should be the last resort and prefer to leverage savings or borrow from people they know.

Mintel research shows that there are a lot of business opportunities for financial service providers to better market their products and services, given the gaps in the market. With retailers keen to tap in to this by offering credit services, the future competition will not be limited to traditional service providers, namely banks. Those who are quick to understand consumers' changing attitudes and needs will have a better chance to capitalise on the growing business of consumer lending.

For the purposes of this report, ‘debt' includes a number of financial products, including both collateral and non-collateral loans borrowed from loan or credit providers.

This report focuses on loans to households rather than businesses. In China, this is mainly in the form of mortgage loans, car loans and other consumption loans, such as money owed on credit cards.

While in some countries consumption loans usually refer to money borrowed to finance consumable goods, such as fuel, food, etc, this report follows a wider definition of consumption loans used by PBoC, which includes mortgages, car loans, money used to finance home renovation, education, luxuries as well as general household purchases.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

  • Definition
  • Methodology
  • Abbreviations

2. Executive Summary

  • Trends in Lending
    • Figure 1: Loans to households, China 2008-April 2014
    • Figure 2: Share of total loans to households by loan type and growth rates, China 2008-13
    • Figure 3: Projected share of different types of loans in household lending, China 2013 versus 2020
  • The Consumer
  • Usage of credit and loan products
    • Figure 4: Usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, April 2014
  • Reasons for not using loans or credit products
    • Figure 5: Reasons for not using loans or credit products, April 2014
  • Purpose of using loans
    • Figure 6: Current purpose of using loans and potential interest over the next 2-3 years, April 2014
  • Motivating factors for using loans
    • Figure 7: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, April 2014
  • Credit card usage habits
    • Figure 8: Credit card usage habits, April 2014
  • Attitudes towards credit and loans
    • Figure 9: Consumer attitudes towards borrowing and debt, April 2014
    • Figure 10: Consumer attitudes towards loans, April 2014
    • Figure 11: Consumer attitudes towards credit cards, April 2014
  • Consumer segmentation
    • Figure 12: Consumer segmentation, April 2014
  • Key issues
  • What drives people's openness to borrowing?
  • What are the opportunities to grow consumption loans?
  • How to market loan products to young adults?
  • What innovations can encourage people to use more loans and credit products?
  • What we think

3. Issues and Insights

  • What drives people's openness to borrowing?
  • The facts
  • The implications
    • Figure 13: Agreement with “I am worried about relying too much on purchasing on credit”, by age, April 2014
    • Figure 14: Agreement with “Borrowing money is acceptable as long as you can repay it on time”, by education, income and age, April 2014
    • Figure 15: Agreement with “It is better to spend only what you can afford rather than taking out an overdraft”, by education, income and age, April 2014
  • What are the opportunities to grow consumption loans?
  • The facts
  • The implications
    • Figure 16: Potential interest in using loans to finance car and home improvement, by age and gender, April 2014
    • Figure 17: Motivating factors for people to use loans among existing car loan users, April 2014
    • Figure 18: Potential interest in using loans to finance holidays and luxury products, by city, April 2014
  • How to market loan products to young adults?
  • The facts
  • The implications
  • What innovations can encourage people to use more loans and credit products?
  • The facts
  • The implications

4. Trend Applications

  • Dispel the myth about scary loans
  • Insurance cover for forgetful credit card users
  • Do it now rather than regret later

5. Trends in Consumer Lending

  • Key points
  • Loans to households: four times its size in 2008
    • Figure 19: Loans to households, China 2008-April 2014
  • Short-term consumption loans have grown faster
    • Figure 20: Share of total loans to households by loan type and growth rates, China 2008-13
    • Figure 21: Size of credit granted and overdraft on credit cards, China 2009-2014 (Q1)
  • Future growth outlook
  • The removal of bank lending rate floor
  • More private capital in the banking sector and retailers' innovation
  • The rise of online P2P lending
  • Consumer lending to account for two thirds of GDP by 2020
    • Figure 22: Projected share of different types of loans in household lending, China 2013 versus 2020

6. The Consumer - Usage of Credit and Loan Products

  • Key points
  • 85% of consumers have undertaken some sort of money borrowing
    • Figure 23: Usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, April 2014
  • Credit card usage by target group
    • Figure 24: Usage of credit cards, by age and gender, April 2014
  • 20-39-year-olds are more likely to need loans to cope
    • Figure 25: Usage of loans, by age, April 2014
    • Figure 26: Repertoire of usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, by age, April 2014
  • Different approaches by high and low earners
    • Figure 27: Usage of loans, by income, April 2014
  • Borrowing from people I know happens more often in tier two/three cities
  • Usage of credit and loan products goes up with education level
    • Figure 28: Repertoire of usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, by demographics, April 2014

7. The Consumer - Reasons for Not Using Loans or Credit Products

  • Key points
  • Not used to the idea of being in debt is still the number one barrier...
    • Figure 29: Reasons for not using loans or credit products, April 2014
  • ...but there are still some differences across age groups
    • Figure 30: Reasons for not using loans or credit products, by age, April 2014

8. The Consumer - Purpose of Using Loans

  • Key points
  • Home improvement and investment are top two purposes
    • Figure 31: Purpose of using loans, April 2014
    • Figure 32: Selected purposes of using loans, by age group, April 2014
  • Big potential for car loan to grow over the next few years
    • Figure 33: Potential interest in using loans, April 2014
  • Marketing loan products according to needs state by lifestage
    • Figure 34: Selected potential interest in using loans, by age, April 2014
    • Figure 35: Selected potential interest in using loans, by age, April 2014
  • Tier one cities versus tier two/three cities
    • Figure 36: Potential interest in using loans, by city tiers, April 2014

9. The Consumer - Motivating Factors for Using Loans

  • Key points
  • What consumers expect most: flexible terms and lower cost
    • Figure 37: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, April 2014
  • Higher income groups are more demanding in both product and process
    • Figure 38: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by income, April 2014
  • Making it easier for young adults with short-term needs
    • Figure 39: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by age, April 2014
  • Different considerations based on purpose of the loan

10. The Consumer -Credit Card Usage Habits

  • Key points
  • The majority use credit cards as a money management tool rather than a source of credit
    • Figure 40: Credit card usage habits, April 2014
    • Figure 41: Credit card usage habits - “Being charged for late payment” by income and city tier, April 2014
  • Different views about paying by instalments
    • Figure 42: Credit card usage habits (continued), April 2014
  • Women are more motivated by reward schemes
    • Figure 43: Credit card usage habits - “Using my credit card just for getting bonus points”, by gender, April 2014
  • Using credit cards overseas and increasing credit limits
    • Figure 44: Credit card usage habits (continued), April 2014

11. The Consumer - Attitudes towards Credit and Loans

  • Key points
  • People are generally becoming more open to borrowing...
    • Figure 45: Consumer attitudes towards borrowing money, April 2014
    • Figure 46: Consumer attitudes towards borrowing money (continued), April 2014
    • Figure 47: Agreement on “Borrowing money can be a useful way to protect savings/investments.”, April 2014
  • ...but about half of them still prefer to live within their means
    • Figure 48: Consumer attitudes towards spending by borrowing, April 2014
  • Tier two/three consumers are more conservative
    • Figure 49: Consumer attitudes towards spending by borrowing, by city tier, April 2014
  • Helping people to understand better about loan products is key
    • Figure 50: Consumer attitudes towards loan services, April 2014
  • The majority think banks are more reliable than online P2P lending sites
    • Figure 51: Consumer attitudes towards P2P lending, April 2014
  • People are more positive about the benefits of credit cards...
    • Figure 52: Consumer attitudes towards using credit services, April 2014
  • ...yet not everyone feels relaxed about relying on credit cards
    • Figure 53: Consumer attitudes towards using credit services, April 2014
    • Figure 54: Agreement on “Using credit card is a reflection of irrational spending”, by demographics, April 2014

12. Consumer Segmentation

  • Key points
  • A spectrum of attitudes towards debt and credit
    • Figure 55: Consumer segmentation, April 2014
  • The Conservative
  • 22% of online population surveyed
  • Demographic traits
  • Marketing perspective
  • The Progressive (42%)
  • 42% of the online population surveyed
  • Demographic traits
  • Marketing perspective
  • The Neutral
  • 36% of the online population surveyed
  • Demographic traits
  • Marketing perspectives

13. Appendix - Usage of Credit and Loan Products

  • Figure 56: Usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, April 2014
  • Figure 57: Usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 58: Repertoire of usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, April 2014
  • Figure 59: Repertoire of usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, by demographics, April 2014

14. Appendix - Reasons for Not Using Loans or Credit Products

  • Figure 60: Reasons for not using loans or credit products, April 2014
  • Figure 61: Most popular reasons for not using loans or credit products, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 62: Next most popular reasons for not using loans or credit products, by demographics, April 2014

15. Appendix - Purpose of Using Loans - Current

  • Figure 63: Purpose of using loans in the past, April 2014
  • Figure 64: Most popular purpose of using loans in the past, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 65: Next most popular purpose of using loans in the past, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 66: Purpose of using loans in the past, by usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, April 2014

16. Appendix - Purpose of Using Loans - Near Future

  • Figure 67: Potential interest in using loans, April 2014
  • Figure 68: Most popular potential interest in using loans, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 69: Next most popular potential interest in using loans, by demographics, April 2014

17. Appendix - Motivation Factors for Using Loans

  • Figure 70: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, April 2014
  • Figure 71: Most popular factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 72: Next most popular factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 73: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by Potential interest in using loans, April 2014
  • Figure 74: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by Potential interest in using loans, continued table, April 2014

18. Appendix - Credit Card Usage Habits

  • Figure 75: Credit card usage habits, April 2014
  • Figure 76: Usage of credit card - Application to increase my credit limit, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 77: Usage of credit card - Being charged for late payment, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 78: Usage of credit card - Using up more than half of my credit balance, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 79: Usage of credit card - Paying only the minimum monthly amount of my credit balance, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 80: Usage of credit card - Paying by credit card is my first payment choice, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 81: Usage of credit card - Paying in instalments whenever this is available, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 82: Usage of credit card - Using my credit card overseas, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 83: Usage of credit card - Using my credit card just for getting bonus points, by demographics, April 2014

19. Appendix - Consumer Attitudes towards Credits and Loans

  • Figure 84: Consumer attitudes towards credits and loans, April 2014
  • Figure 85: Agreement with the statement 'Only those who are struggling with their financial situation need to borrow money', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 86: Agreement with the statement 'It is better to save up for something rather than taking out a credit/loan', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 87: Agreement with the statement 'It is better to spend only what you can afford rather than taking out an overdraft', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 88: Agreement with the statement 'Borrowing money is acceptable as long as you can repay it on time', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 89: Agreement with the statement 'Borrowing money can be a useful way to protect savings/investments', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 90: Agreement with the statement 'I am becoming more comfortable about being in debt than before', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 91: Agreement with the statement 'Earning bonus points by using credit card is appealing to me', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 92: Agreement with the statement 'Credit cards can offer more flexibility when managing finances', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 93: Agreement with the statement 'Using credit cards is a reflection of irrational spending', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 94: Agreement with the statement 'I am worried about relying too much on purchasing on credit', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 95: Agreement with the statement 'I would proactively consider using loan products if there were better loan services', by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 96: Agreement with the statement 'It is more reliable to take loans from a bank than from an online agency', by demographics, April 2014

20. Appendix - Consumer Segmentation

  • Figure 97: Consumer segmentation, April 2014
  • Figure 98: Consumer segmentation, by demographics, April 2014
  • Figure 99: Usage of credit cards, loans or other credit products, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 100: Reasons for not using loans or credit products, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 101: Purpose of using loans in the past, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 102: Potential interest in using loans, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 103: Factors that encourage consumers to use loan products to cover household expenditure, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 104: Usage of credit card, by target groups, April 2014
  • Figure 105: Consumer attitudes towards credit and loans, by target groups, April 2014
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