市場調査レポート - 97357

クリーン石炭技術の世界市場:2009年 - 石炭エネルギーのグリーン化

The Global Market for Clean Coal Technology 2009: The Greening of Coal-Fired Energy

発行 Priority Metrics Group
出版日 ページ情報 英文 200+ PAGES (including 50+ tables and charts)
価格
クリーン石炭技術の世界市場:2009年 - 石炭エネルギーのグリーン化 The Global Market for Clean Coal Technology 2009: The Greening of Coal-Fired Energy
出版日: 2009年05月30日 ページ情報: 英文 200+ PAGES (including 50+ tables and charts)
概要

石炭発電が魅力的な技術オプションとして生き残るためには、その環境性能/経済性、熱効率の改善と排出ガスの低減に対する更なる努力が必要とされます。

当レポートでは、主なクリーン石炭技術の解説、各種技術の長所と短所、主要動向と課題、2009年の市場規模とその2014年までの予測、将来の需要への影響要因の分析、法規・規制要件、主要企業のプロファイルなどを提供しており、概略以下の構成でお届けします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 クリーン石炭技術

  • 石炭の種類
  • 石炭プラントからの排出
  • 公害防止/排ガス浄化システム
  • 効率の向上
  • 基本的な技術と処理
  • 微粉炭燃焼
  • 流動層燃焼
  • 石炭ガス化複合発電(IGCC)
  • IGCCと燃料電池
  • ハイブリッド燃焼/ガス化システム
  • 二酸化炭素の回収・貯留(CCS)
  • 二酸化炭素の回収
  • 二酸化炭素の輸送
  • 二酸化炭素の貯留

第3章 市場の規模と区分

  • 世界のエネルギー生産
  • IEO2008
  • 地域別の発電量
  • 燃料タイプ別の発電量
  • 発電に使用される石炭
  • OECD加盟国の石炭消費
  • クリーン石炭技術
  • クリーン石炭技術プロジェクト
  • 市場規模
  • 市場の見通し:資本投資

第4章 技術

  • 製品化への道
  • 技術コストの比較
  • CCSの実施
  • 排出市場
  • 排出権取引の枠組み
  • クリーン開発と気候に関するアジア太平洋パートナーシップ(APP)
  • 炭素隔離リーダーシップフォーラム(CSLF)
  • COAL21基金
  • 温室効果ガス技術・共同研究センター(CO2CRC)
  • EPRI 66 CoalFleet for Tomorrow
  • 欧州ゼロエミション化石燃料発電技術プラットフォーム(ZEP)
  • IEA G8 Gleneagles Programme
  • 世界炭素回収・貯蔵技術研究所(GCCSI)
  • エネルギー技術研究所(ETI)
  • 法規・規制環境
  • 代替エネルギー源
  • 石炭エネルギーの機会

第5章 企業プロファイル

  • Alstom
  • American Electric Power
  • BP
  • Citigroup
  • ConocoPhillips
  • Duke Energy
  • Foster Wheeler Inc.
  • General Electric
  • Merrill Lynch
  • Morgan Stanley
  • Praxair, Inc.
  • Royal Dutch Shell
  • Siemens
  • Tampa Electric Company

付録1:OECD組織

付録2:クリーン石炭活動

図表

目次

Abstract

In order to remain an attractive technology option, coal-fired power generation needs to improve further its environmental performance and economics, increase its thermal efficiency and reduce emissions. Approaches available include further developments of conventional combustion systems and deployment of technologies utilizing combined cycles.

The more familiar Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) available include:

  • Supercritical pulverized coal combustion (PCC)
  • Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC)
  • Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC)
  • Pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (PCFBC)
  • Integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC)
  • IGCC-fuel cells
  • Hybrid gasification/combustion systems

In the report, these and other CCTs are reviewed from the point of view of their current status, current and likely future performance and R&D needs. For long term acceptability of coal for power generation, near-zero emissions are likely to be required. Many of the conventional CCTs are technically suitable for development to give near-zero emission technologies encompassing CO2 capture for sequestration. These and separate, innovative, approaches are also reviewed in the report. The report also discusses the topic of CO2 storage or utilizations.

PCC is currently the most widely adopted system for coal-fired power generation and the use of supercritical conditions has become the norm for new installations in industrialized countries. Circulating fluidized bed combustion is just reaching scales suitable for economic use of supercritical conditions. In the short to medium term, reducing capital costs and improving efficiency and environmental performance will aid further deployment of supercritical PCC and CFBC through continuing evolutionary improvements in steam conditions and environmental control systems.

PFBC has been deployed at commercial scale, although the number of installations is still small and it appears to be destined to become a niche technology. Coal-fired IGCC demonstrations at commercial scale have been operated in the USA and Europe, with thermal efficiencies of up to 45%, but commercial orders for plants have not yet been forthcoming. Further R&D and commercial-scale demonstrations are needed to encourage commercialization of the technology by improving reliability and availability and reducing costs. Materials developments will be important. IGCC plants are capable of levels of emissions of SO2 and particulates that are much better than current requirements and emissions of NOx are also low. The technology can offer further increases in efficiency through advances in gas turbine technology (higher pressure ratios, higher turbine entry temperatures, reheat) and the further development of hot gas cleaning processes for the gas leaving the gasifier.

The above technologies are expected to have an important role to play in satisfying the need for clean power generation in the medium term, and their high efficiencies will result in up to 30% savings in CO2 emissions.

Report Methodology

The information in Clean Coal Energy Technologies is based on primary and secondary research. Primary research entailed in-depth, on-site examinations of coal fired power plants and interviews with companies, engineers and scientist to obtain information on clean coal technology trends, marketing programs, likely adoption methods and technological breakthroughs. Secondary research entailed data gathering from relevant sources, including energy and industry publications, newspapers, government reports, company literature and corporate annual reports. Energy production data are based on data from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Information Resources, Inc. and other trade sources. Consumer demographics are derived from Simmons Market Research Bureau data.

Key Report Deliverables

Clean Coal Energy Technologies makes important predictions and recommendations regarding the future of this market, and pinpoints ways current and prospective players can capitalize on current trends and spearhead new ones. No other market research report provides both the comprehensive analysis and extensive data that Clean Coal Energy Technologies offers. Plus, you' ll benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables and graphs.

  • In-depth description of major types of clean coal technology currently in use or development, including PCC, USC, CFBC, PFBC, PCFBC, IGCC, IGCC- Fuel Cells, hybrid systems, and CCS,
  • Discussion of technology life cycles and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each,
  • Key trends and issues,
  • Current (2009) market size and forecast of market size through 2014,
  • Review of drivers and influencers of demand and assessment of their impact on future demand,
  • Marketplace acceptance of alternative energy,
  • Legal and regulatory requirements,
  • In-depth profiles of leading participants within the industry including background, product portfolio, financial performance, M & A activity, technology development, strategic direction and key personnel changes.

Who Should Buy This Report

  • Marketing managers - to identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans for green coal-fired energy technologies.
  • Research and development professionals - to stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for clean coal technologies.
  • Advertising agencies - working with clients in energy, banking, infrastructure, and local and state governments, to develop messages and images that compel
  • consumers and businesses to use clean coal technology.
  • Venture capitalists and business development executives - to understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible investment opportunities.
  • Information and research center librarians - to provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with accurate and timely information they need to do their jobs more effectively.

How You' ll Benefit from This Report

If your company is already doing business in the clean coal market, or is considering making the leap, you will find this report invaluable, as it provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current market for clean coal energy technologies, as well as projected markets and trends through 2012.

The report is over 200 pages and includes over 50 tables and charts.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Executive Summary

  • Pollution Control / Flue Gas Cleanup Systems
    • Coal Cleaning
    • Particulate Removal Systems
    • Desulfurization Systems
    • Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Systems
  • Combustion Technologies
    • Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • Supercritical Boilers and Ultra-supercritical Boilers
    • IGCC
    • Carbon Capture and Storage (Sequestration)
  • Capacity Additions
  • Capital Expenditures
  • Factors to Monitor
  • CCS Implementation
  • The Carbon Markets
  • Alternate Energy Sources

Chapter 2 - Clean Coal Technology

  • Types of Coal
  • Coal Plant Emissions
  • Pollution Control / Flue Gas Cleanup Systems
    • Coal Cleaning
    • Particulate Removal Systems
    • Desulfurization Systems
    • Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Systems
    • Summary
  • Improving Efficiencies
  • Basic Technologies and Processes
  • Pulverized Coal Combustion
    • Supercritical
    • Ultra-Supercritical
  • Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFBC)
  • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
  • IGCC and Fuel Cells
  • Hybrid Combustion/Gasification Systems
    • Advanced Combustion/Gasification Hybrid Technology
    • Combustion/Gasification Chemical Looping
  • Carbon Capture and Storage (Sequestration) Overview
  • Carbon Capture
    • Post Combustion Capture
    • Pre-combustion Capture
    • Oxyfuel Combustion
    • Chemical Looping Combustion
  • Carbon Transportation
  • Carbon Storage
    • Deep Saline Formations
    • Depleted Oil and Gas Fields
    • Deep Coal Seams
    • Other Geological Storage
    • Terrestrial Sequestration
    • Chemical Conversion
    • Other Sequestration

Chapter 3 - Market Size and Segmentation

  • World Energy Production
  • International Energy Outlook 2008 (IEO2008)
  • World Electricity Generation by Region
  • World Electricity Generation by Fuel Type
  • Coal Use in Electricity Generation
  • OECD Countries - Coal Consumption
    • North America - Electricity
    • United States Electricity Mix
    • United States Coal Consumption
    • Canada - Electricity Mix
    • Canada - Coal Consumption
    • Mexico - Electricity Mix and Coal Consumption
    • OECD Europe - Electricity
    • OECD Europe Coal Consumption
    • OECD Asia Electricity Mix
    • OECD Asia Coal Consumption
    • Non-OECD Asia Electricity Mix
    • Non-OECD Asia Coal Consumption
    • Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia Electricity Mix
    • Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia Coal Consumption
    • Africa - Electricity Mix
    • Africa Coal Consumption
    • Central and South America - Energy Mix
    • Central and South America Coal Consumption
    • Middle East - Electricity Mix
    • Middle East - Coal Consumption
  • Clean Coal Technologies
    • Improving Efficiency
    • Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Clean Coal Technology Projects
    • Barriers to Deploying CCS Commercially
    • Supercritical and Ultra-supercritical
    • Fluidized Bed Combustion
    • IGCC
    • U.S. Leadership
    • Announced vs. Actual
    • Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Market Size Determination
  • Market Projections - Capital Expenditure

Chapter 4 - Winning Technologies

  • The Road to Commercialization
    • Innovative Environments
    • The Vattenfall Experience
    • Business Risks
    • Financing Concerns
    • Permitting in the U.S.
    • Factors to Monitor
    • Carbon Capture and Storage - Most Promising Technology
    • Mixed Strategy
  • Technology Cost Comparisons
    • CCS Component Costs
    • 2006 Cost and Performance of Coal Fired - Power Plants
    • New Plant Construction Costs
  • CCS Implementation
    • Legal Framework
    • Public Understanding
    • Research Funding
    • Financial Incentives
    • Additional Revenue Stream Support - EOR and CMM
    • Additional Ops in Transport Fuel and Chemical Production
    • Cap and Trade Systems
    • A Future for Fossil Fuel
    • Price Supports and Tariffs
    • Emerging Economies
  • Emission Markets
    • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    • The Kyoto Protocol
    • International Emissions Trading
    • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
    • Joint Implementation (JI)
  • Emissions Trading Schemes
    • Voluntary Markets
    • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
    • Western Climate Initiative
  • Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP)
  • Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF)
  • COAL21 Fund
  • Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC)
  • EPRI 66 CoalFleet for Tomorrow
  • European Technology Platform on Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants
  • IEA G8 Gleneagles Programme
  • Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute (GCCSI)
  • Energy Technologies Institute (ETI)
  • Legal & Regulatory Environment
    • U.S. Government Status on CCS
    • U.S. Government Status on IGCC
    • U.S. Federal Agencies
    • Union of Concerned Scientists
  • Alternate Energy Sources
    • Wind
    • Solar
    • Biomass
    • Geothermal
    • Opponents to Coal Fired Energy
    • The Sierra Club
    • Greenpeace International

Chapter 5 - Company Profiles

  • Company Background
  • Product Portfolio
  • Financial Performance
  • Recent News
  • M&A Activity
  • Technology Development / R&D
  • Strategic Direction
  • Key Personnel Changes
  • Alstom
  • American Electric Power
  • BP
  • Citigroup
  • ConocoPhillips
  • Duke Energy
  • Foster Wheeler Inc.
  • General Electric
  • Merrill Lynch
  • Morgan Stanley
  • Praxair, Inc.
  • Royal Dutch Shell
  • Siemens
  • Tampa Electric Company

Appendix I: OECD Structure

Appendix II: Clean Coal Activity

  • Selected Clean Coal Technology Plants
  • Clean Coal Technology Developments
    • United States
    • Canada
    • Australia
    • Japan
    • China
    • South Korea
    • India
    • South Africa
    • Brazil
    • Europe (Overall)
    • France
    • Germany
    • Spain
    • United Kingdom
    • Turkey
    • Russia
  • Capital Investment Decision Making - Subcritical vs. Supercritical and Ultra-Supercritical

List of Figures

  • Figure 1-1: New Technology Deployment Curve for Coal
  • Figure 1-2: Global Clean Coal Capacity Installations by Type, 2009-2014
  • Figure 1-3: Clean Coal Technology Capital Expenditures through 2014
  • Figure 1-4: Estimated Capital Costs of New Plants by Type
  • Figure 2-1: Coal Washing
  • Figure 2-2: Side view of ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator) Schematic Diagram
  • Figure 2-3: Major NOx Reduction Techniques
  • Figure 2-4: CO2 Emissions per MW Produced from Coal by Efficiency Level
  • Figure 2-5: Pulverized Coal Combustion (PCC) Illustration
  • Figure 2-6: Ultra-Supercritical Unit Schematic
  • Figure 2-7: Fluidized Bed Firing Schematic
  • Figure 2-8: Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Schematic
  • Figure 2-9: Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Schematic
  • Figure 2-10: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Schematic
  • Figure 2-11: IGCC Products and By Product Schematic
  • Figure 2-12: Fuel Cell Schematic.
  • Figure 2-13: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Schematic
  • Figure 2-14: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
  • Figure 2-15: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
  • Figure 2-16: Advanced Combustion/Gasification Hybrid Technology Schematic
  • Figure 2-17: Advanced Chemical Looping Process Schematic
  • Figure 2-18: Principles Governing the Capture of CO2
  • Figure 2-19: Carbon Sequestration Schematic
  • Figure 3-1: Total World Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2008
  • Figure 3-2: Regional Share of Electricity Generation, 2006
  • Figure 3-3: World Net Electric Power Generation, 1990-2030
  • Figure 3-4: World Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-5: OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2005, 2015 and 2030
  • Figure 3-6: Net Electricity Generation in North America by Fuel, 2005 and 2030
  • Figure 3-7: Canada' s Electricity Generation, by Source, 1985- 2005
  • Figure 3-8: Consumption of Hydrocarbons for Generation in Mexico, 1986-2006
  • Figure 3-9: Net Electricity Generation in OECD Europe by Fuel, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-10: South Korea' s Electricity Generation, by Source, 1984-2004
  • Figure 3-11: Australia' s Electricity Generation, by Source, 1984-2004
  • Figure 3-12: Japan' s Electricity Generation, by Source, 1986-2006
  • Figure 3-13: Net Electricity Generation in OECD Asia, 2005- 2030
  • Figure 3-14: Net Electricity Generation in Non-OECD Asia by Fuel Type, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-15: Coal Consumption in China by Sector, 2005, 2015 and 2030
  • Figure 3-16: Net Electricity Generation in Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-17: Net Electricity Generation in Africa, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-18: Net Electricity Generation in Brazil by Fuel, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-19: Net Electricity Generation in the Middle East by Fuel Type, 2005-2030
  • Figure 3-20: Reductions in CO2 Emissions through Clean Coal Innovations
  • Figure 3-21: Global Clean Coal Capacity Installations by Type, 2009-2014
  • Figure 3-22: Global Clean Coal Capital Expenditure, 2009-2014
  • Figure 4-1: The Innovation Process for Clean Coal Technologies
  • Figure 4-2: New Technology Deployment Curve for Coal
  • Figure 4-3: 2006 Cost and Performance of Coal Fired - Power Plants
  • Figure 4-4: Estimated Capital Costs of New Plants by Type
  • Figure 4-5: Total Capital Requirement (TCR) per kW with and without CCS
  • Figure 4-6: Map of Annex B and Non-Annex B Nations
  • Figure A-1: Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plants, 2004-2008, 2009-2014, Post 2014
  • Figure A-2: Ultra-Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plants, 2004-2008, 2009-2014, Post 2014
  • Figure A-3: Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Plants, 2004-2008, 2009-2014, Post 2014
  • Figure A-4: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants, 2004-2008, 2009- 2014, Po 2014
  • Figure A-5: Carbon Capture and Sequestration Projects, 2009-2014, Post 2014
  • Figure A-6: Commercial Demonstration Projects in Canada, May 2007

List of Tables

  • Table 1-1: Average Efficiency Level of Various Plant Types
  • Table 2-1: Proved Recoverable Coal Reserves, End of 2006, MM metric tons
  • Table 2-2: Typical Properties of Characteristic Coal Types
  • Table 2-3: Comparative Status of Coal Preparation in Various Countries
  • Table 2-4: Impact from Coal Use and Technological Response
  • Table 2-5: Comparison for Sub-, Super- and Ultra-Supercritical Steam Units
  • Table 2-6: Fuel Cell Technology Comparison
  • Table 3-1: Percentage of Electricity Generated by Coal in Selected Countries, 2006
  • Table 3-2: Electricity Production by Fossil Fuels, 2006
  • Table 3-3: United States Power Generation by Fuel Type, 2006, 2007 and 2008
  • Table 3-4: United States Coal-Fired Generating Plants by Age, 1921-2008
  • Table 3-5: Coal-Fired Capacity as % of Canada' s Energy Mix, 2006
  • Table 3-6: Average Efficiency Level of Various Plant Types
  • Table 3-7: Ultra Supercritical Plants in Operation or Under Development in China
  • Table 3-8: Supercritical and Ultra-supercritical Plants in Progress in the U.S.
  • Table 3-9: Fluidized Bed Plants in Progress in the U.S.
  • Table 3-10: Commercial Scale Coal-Based IGCC Demonstration Plants in Operation
  • Table 3-11: Active IGCC Plants Proposals and Construction
  • Table 3-12: Commercial Scale IGCC - CCS Proposed Projects
  • Table 3-13: Projected Increase in the Cost of Generating Power Due to Carbon Capture and Sequestration
  • Table 4-1: Cost Ranges for Components of a CCS System
  • Table 4-2: IEA Estimates of CCS Costs - Current & Potential Technologies
  • Table 4-3: Cost per kWh of Alternative Fuels - Traditional
  • Table 4-4: Cost per kWh of Alternative Fuels - Renewable
  • Table 5-1: Profiled Company Description
  • Table A-1: Ultra Mega Power Plant Announcements in India, February 2009
  • Table A-2: Electricity Generation Plants in Turkey, Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology, May 2008
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