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市場調査レポート - 70916

細胞治療:技術・市場・企業

Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies

発行 Jain Pharmabiotech
出版日 ページ情報 英文
価格
細胞治療:技術・市場・企業 Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies
出版日: 2014年06月01日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

当レポートでは、医療活動で重要な役割を担う細胞治療技術についての最新調査データから、創薬における細胞の役割などを分析するほか、同分野の関連企業、学術機関に関する情報を提供すべく、概略下記の構成でお届けします。

パートI

エグゼクティブサマリー

第1章 細胞治療についてのイントロダクション

  • イントロダクション
  • 細胞治療の偉業史
  • 細胞治療技術の相関性
  • 細胞・組織の移植
  • 細胞とタンパク質、遺伝子治療
  • 細胞治療と再生医療
  • 細胞治療と組織工学
  • 疾患関与細胞に基く治療法
  • 細胞を治療に利用することの利点
  • 細胞利用の薬物送達

第2章 細胞治療技術

  • イントロダクション
  • 治療に使用される細胞の種類
  • 細胞の供給源
  • 細胞治療の基礎技術
  • 細胞利用の薬物送達
  • 細胞治療のための薬品送達システム
  • 人工細胞
  • 細胞のカプセル化
  • 電気穿孔法(エレクトロポレーション)
  • 遺伝子治療
  • 細胞の生体内追跡
  • 細胞治療の発展におけるナノテクノロジーの役割
  • 臓器発達への細胞移植
  • 細胞移植と公差
  • 病原性体細胞の切除と交換

第3章 幹細胞

  • イントロダクション
  • 幹細胞の生物学
  • 幹細胞の供給源
  • ヒト体細胞由来の人工多能性幹細胞(iPS細胞)
  • 条件付きで自己複製する誘発前駆細胞
  • 成人ヒト幹細胞の供給源
  • 「成人幹細胞」対「胚幹細胞(ES細胞)
  • 供給源によるヒト幹細胞の比較
  • VENT(Ventrally Emigrating Neural Tube)細胞
  • 幹細胞銀行
  • 幹細胞技術
  • 幹細胞の用途
  • 幹細胞技術が向き合う今後の課題
  • 学術機関における幹細胞研究
  • 幹細胞技術に関与する企業
  • 幹細胞についての結び
  • 幹細胞研究における今後の課題と展望

第4章 細胞治療の臨床用途

  • イントロダクション
  • 血液疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 免疫疾患に対する細胞治療
  • ウィルス性感染症に対する細胞治療
  • リソソーム蓄積症の細胞治療
  • 真性糖尿病に対する細胞治療
  • 消化器疾患の細胞治療
  • 肝臓疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 腎臓疾患の細胞治療
  • 肺疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 骨・関節疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 眼球疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 放射線症に対する幹細胞移植
  • 再生医療への細胞治療
  • 創傷治癒:皮膚・軟組織の修復
  • 組織工学および再建手術における組織工学の役割
  • 若返りに向けた細胞治療
  • スポーツにおける能力強化に向けた細胞治療
  • 獣医学における幹細胞の応用

第5章 心疾患に対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • 心筋虚血障害に対する現行療法の限界
  • 心疾患に対する細胞治療の種類
  • アテローム性冠動脈疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 心臓への細胞送達方法
  • 血管再開通術のための細胞治療
  • 心血管組織修復における細胞の役割
  • 心臓修復における幹細胞の役割
  • 遺伝子組み換え細胞の移植
  • 先天性心臓欠陥矯正のための胚性幹細胞(ESC)
  • 心臓手術のための心血管前駆細胞
  • 慢性心筋虚血に使用される自己幹細胞
  • 心血管組織工学における細胞の役割
  • 末梢血管疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 心疾患における細胞治療の役割
  • 心臓疾患細胞治療の利点のメカニズム
  • 心臓疾患細胞治療に不可欠な評価
  • 脳血管疾患細胞治療の将来的方向性

第6章 がんに対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • がんに対する細胞治療技術
  • 抗がん治療の細胞利用送達
  • がんに対する細胞免疫療法
  • がんワクチン
  • 幹細胞利用の抗がん治療
  • 細胞利用がん治療における技術革新
  • 細胞利用がん治療に関与する企業
  • American Association for Cancer Research and ESCs
  • 細胞利用がん治療の将来

第7章 神経疾患対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • 内因性幹細胞による神経系の再生
  • 神経疾患治療に使用される細胞の種類
  • 神経学用途に対する細胞治療法
  • 細胞治療に適した神経疾患
  • 中枢神経疾患細胞治療の複雑化
  • 神経疾患における細胞治療の治験
  • 中枢神経疾患細胞治療の将来展望

第8章 細胞治療の倫理的・政治的局面

  • イントロダクション
  • 米国におけるヒトES細胞研究の倫理的・政治的局面
  • 世界で利用可能な幹細胞ライン
  • 各国の幹細胞政策
  • 臍帯血に関する倫理問題
  • 参謀治療ツーリズム

第9章 細胞治療の安全・規制局面

  • イントロダクション
  • 細胞治療の安全性問題
  • 細胞・組織製品に対するFDA(米国食品医薬品局)安全基準
  • 米国における臍帯血規制
  • バイオテクノロジー系薬剤に対する規制問題
  • 医療現場における末梢血幹細胞移植用細胞選定装置の規制
  • ヒト細胞・組織に対するFDA規定
  • 異種移植
  • EUにおける細胞治療関連の規制
  • NIH(国立衛生研究所)と幹細胞
  • 細胞治療における治験
  • 幹細胞特許

図表

パートII

第10章 細胞治療の市場および将来展望

  • イントロダクション
  • 市場規模の推定方法
  • 細胞治療市場の有望性
  • 地域別市場規模
  • 細胞治療におけるアンメットニーズ
  • 細胞治療市場発展の推進要因
  • 細胞治療の将来展望
  • 事業戦略

第11章 細胞治療に関与する企業

第12章 学術機関

第13章 参考資料

図表

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目次

This report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. Role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. Current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2013, and projected to 2023.The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair as well as diabetes mellitus will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 294 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 285 alliances. Of these companies, 160 are involved in stem cells. Profiles of 72 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 60 Tables and 15 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,050 selected references, which are cited in the text.

Table of Contents

Part I

0. Executive Summary 25

1. Introduction to Cell Therapy 29

  • Introduction 29
  • Historical landmarks of cell therapy 29
  • Interrelationship of cell therapy technologies 31
  • Cells and organ transplantation 32
  • Cells and protein/gene therapy 32
  • Cell therapy and regenerative medicine 33
  • Cells therapy and tissue engineering 34
  • Therapy based on cells involved in disease 34
  • Advantages of therapeutic use of cells 35
  • Cell-based drug delivery 35
  • Cells as vehicles for gene delivery 35
  • Red blood cells as vehicles for drug delivery 36
  • Advantages of cell-based drug delivery 36
  • Limitations of cell-based drug delivery 37

2. Cell Therapy Technologies 39

  • Introduction 39
  • Cell types used for therapy 39
  • Sources of cells 39
  • Xenografts 40
  • Cell lines 40
  • Immortalized cells 40
  • Blood component therapy 40
  • Therapeutic apheresis 40
  • Leukoreduction 41
  • Platelet therapy 41
  • Basic technologies for cell therapy 42
  • Cell culture 42
  • Automated cell culture devices 42
  • Cell culture for adoptive cell therapy 43
  • Observation of stem cell growth and viability 43
  • OpTmizer™ CTS™ T cell expansion tissue culture medium 43
  • Companies involved in cell culture 43
  • Cell sorting 45
  • Flow cytometry 45
  • Applications of flow cytometry 46
  • A dielectrophoretic system for cell separation 46
  • Adult stem cell sorting by identification of surface markers 46
  • ALDESORTER system for isolation of stem cells 47
  • Dynabead technology for cell sorting 47
  • Elutra® Cell Separation System 47
  • Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies 48
  • Molecular beacons for specific detection and isolation of stem cells 48
  • Multitarget magnetic activated cell sorter 48
  • Nanocytometry 49
  • Scepter™ cytometer 49
  • Companies supplying cell sorters 49
  • Cell analysis 50
  • Cell analyzers 50
  • In vivo cell imaging 51
  • Measuring cell density 51
  • Single-cell gene expression analysis 51
  • Fluorescent in situ RNA sequencing 53
  • Preservation of cells 53
  • Innovations in cryopreservation 53
  • Packaging of cells 54
  • Selective expansion of T cells for immunotherapy 55
  • Cloning and cell therapy 55
  • Techniques for cell manipulation 56
  • Altering function of adult human cells 56
  • Cell-based drug discovery 57
  • Advantages and limitations of cell-based assays for drug discovery 57
  • Advantages and limitations of cell-based toxicity screening 57
  • Quality control of cells for drug discovery 58
  • Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery 58
  • Drug delivery systems for cell therapy 60
  • Intravenous delivery of stem cells 60
  • Intraarterial delivery of stem cells 60
  • Pharmacologically active microcarriers 60
  • Targeted delivery of engineered cells to specific tissues via circulation 61
  • Devices for delivery of cell therapy 61
  • Artificial cells 62
  • Applications of artificial cells 62
  • Cell encapsulation 63
  • Cell-in-a-Box® 63
  • Diffusion capsule for cells 64
  • Encapsulated cell biodelivery 64
  • Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells 64
  • Nitric oxide delivery by encapsulated cells 66
  • Implantation of microencapulated genetically modified cells 66
  • Ferrofluid microcapsules for tracking with MRI 67
  • Companies involved in encapsulated cell technology 67
  • Electroporation 68
  • Gene therapy 68
  • Cell-mediated gene therapy 69
  • Fibroblasts 69
  • Chondrocyte 70
  • Skeletal muscle cells 70
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells 70
  • Keratinocytes 71
  • Hepatocytes 71
  • Lymphocytes 71
  • Mammalian artificial chromosomes 72
  • In vivo tracking of cells 72
  • Molecular imaging for tracking cells 72
  • MRI technologies for tracking cells 73
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents 73
  • Visualization of gene expression in vivo by MRI 74
  • Optogenetic monitoring of cell therapies 74
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in development of cell therapy 75
  • Cell transplantation for development of organs 75
  • Cells transplantation and tolerance 76
  • Strategies to improve tolerance of transplanted cells 76
  • Encapsulation to prevent immune rejection 76
  • Prevention of rejection of xenotransplants 76
  • Expansion of allospecific regulatory T cells 77
  • Removal and replacement of pathogenic cells of the body 77
  • Therapeutic leukocytapheresis 78

3. Stem Cells 79

  • Introduction 79
  • Biology of stem cells 79
  • Embryonic stem cells 80
  • Growth and differentiation of ESCs 80
  • Mechanisms of differentiation of ESCs 81
  • Chemical regulation of stem cell differentiation 81
  • In vitro differentiation of hESCs 81
  • SIRT1 regulation during stem cell differentiation 82
  • Regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation 82
  • hESCs for reprogramming human somatic nuclei 82
  • Stem cells differentiation in the pituitary gland 83
  • Influence of microenvironment on ESCs 83
  • Role of genes in differentiation of ESCs 83
  • Global transcription in pluripotent ESCs 83
  • Role of p53 tumor suppressor gene in stem cell differentiation 84
  • Role of Pax3 gene in stem cell differentiation 84
  • Signaling pathways and ESC genes 84
  • Epigenetics of hESCs 85
  • Chromatin as gene regulator for ESC development 86
  • Mechanism of regulation of stem cells for regeneration of body tissues 86
  • Role of microenvironments in the regulation of stem cells 86
  • Regulation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells 87
  • Parthenogenesis and human stem cells 87
  • Uniparental ESCs 88
  • Bone marrow stem cells 89
  • Hematopoietic stem cells 89
  • Role of HSCs in the immune system 90
  • Derivation of HSCs from ESCs 91
  • Mesenchymal stem cells 91
  • Multipotent adult progenitor cells 93
  • Side population (SP) stem cells 93
  • Differentiation of adult stem cells 94
  • Growth and differentiation of HSCs 95
  • HSCs and aging 95
  • Mathematical modeling of differentiation of HSCs 95
  • Role of prions in self renewal of HSCs 96
  • Signaling pathways in the growth and differentiation of HSCs 96
  • Sources of stem cells 97
  • Sources of of human embryonic stem cells 97
  • Nuclear transfer to obtain hESCs 97
  • Direct derivation of hESCs from embryos without nuclear transfer 98
  • Alternative methods of obtaining hESCs 98
  • Establishing hESC lines without destruction of embryo 99
  • Altered nuclear transfer 100
  • Advantages and disadvantages of ESCs for transplantation 100
  • Use of ESC cultures as an alternative source of tissue for transplantation 100
  • Spermatogonial stem cells 101
  • Very small embryonic-like stem cells 102
  • Amniotic fluid as a source of stem cells 102
  • Amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration 103
  • Generation of iPS cells from AF cells 103
  • Placenta as source of stem cells 104
  • Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells 104
  • Placenta as a source of HSCs 104
  • Umbilical cord as a source of MSCs 105
  • Umbilical cord blood as source of neonatal stem cells 105
  • Cryopreservation of UCB stem cells 106
  • Epigenetic programming for expansion of UCB cells 106
  • UCB as source of MSCs 107
  • Applications of UCB 107
  • Advantages of UCB 107
  • Limitations of the use of UCB and measures to address them 108
  • Licensing and patent disputes involving UCB 109
  • Infections following UCB transplants 109
  • Unanswered questions about UCB transplantation 110
  • Companies involved in UCB banking 110
  • UCB banking in the UK 111
  • US national UCB banking system 112
  • Future prospects of UCB as a source of stem cells 113
  • Techniques of nuclear reprogramming for stem cells 113
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human somatic cells 114
  • Characteristics of iPSCs 114
  • DNA methylation patterns of iPS cells 115
  • Techniques for obtaining iPSCs 115
  • iPSCs derived from skin 115
  • iPSCs derived through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) 116
  • iPSCs derived from oocytes 116
  • iPSCs derived from adult stem cells using SCNT 116
  • iPSCs derived from blood 116
  • Use of retroviral vectors for generation of iPSCs 117
  • Use of non-integrating viral vectors for generation of iPSCs 117
  • Banks providing patient-specific iPSC lines 118
  • Companies providing iPSCs 119
  • Generation of clinically relevant iPSCs 119
  • Generation of HSCs from iPSCs 120
  • Generation of RBCs from iPSCs 120
  • iPSCs and disease modeling 120
  • iPSCs for patient-specific regenerative medicine 121
  • Concluding remarks about clinical potential of iPSCs 121
  • Induced conditional self-renewing progenitor cells 122
  • Epiblast stem cells 122
  • Comparison of development of human and mouse ESCs 122
  • Conversion of hESCs to mouse ESC-like naïve states 123
  • Sources of adult human stem cells 123
  • Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells 124
  • Intravenous infusion of adipose tissue derived MSCs 124
  • iPSCs derived from adult human adipose stem cells 124
  • Regulation of adipose stem cells differentiation 125
  • Transforming adult adipose stem cells into other cells 125
  • Multipotent stem-like cells derived from vascular endothelial cells 125
  • Skin as a source of stem cells 126
  • Controlling the maturation of embryonic skin stem cells 126
  • Epidermal neural crest stem cells 126
  • Follicle stem cells 126
  • Mesenchymal stem cells in skin 127
  • Regulation of stem cells in hair follicles 127
  • Skin-derived precursor cells 128
  • Regulation of epidermal stem cells by circadian rhythms 128
  • Stem cells in teeth 128
  • Peripheral blood stem cells 129
  • Spleen as a source of adult stem cells 130
  • Search for master stem cells 130
  • Vascular cell platform to self-renew adult HSC 130
  • Adult stem cells vs embryonic stem cells 131
  • Biological differences between adult and embryonic stem cells 131
  • Neural crest stem cells from adult hair follicles 131
  • Transdifferentiation potential of adult stem cells 132
  • Stimulus-triggered conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent cells 133
  • Limitations of adult stem cells 133
  • Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation 133
  • VENT cells 134
  • ESC banking 134
  • Stem cell technologies 134
  • Analysis of stem cell growth and differentiation 135
  • Activation of bone marrow stem cells into therapeutic cells 135
  • Role of nitric oxide in stem cell mobilization and differentiation 135
  • Role of natriuretic peptide receptor-C in self-renewal of murine ESCs 136
  • Stem cell biomarkers 136
  • Endoglin as a functional biomarker of HSCs 136
  • STEMPRO® EZChek™ for analysis of biomarkers of hESCs 136
  • SSEA-4 as biomarker of MSCs 137
  • p75NTR as a biomarker to isolate adipose tissue-derived stem cells 137
  • Neural stem cell biomarker 137
  • Protein expression profile as biomarker of stem cells 138
  • Real-time PCR for quantification of protein biomarkers 138
  • Study of stem cell pathways 138
  • Stem cell genomics 139
  • Gene expression in hESCs 139
  • Genomic alterations in cultured hESCs 139
  • Study of transcriptional regulation of stem cell genes 139
  • Casanova gene in zebrafish 140
  • Nanog gene 140
  • Gene inactivation to study hESCs 141
  • RNAi to study gene inactivation in hESCs 141
  • Study of ESC development by inducible RNAi 142
  • Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes 143
  • Homologous recombination of ESCs 143
  • Gene modification in genomes of hESCs and hiPSCs using zinc-finger nuclease 143
  • miRNA and stem cells 144
  • Role of miRNAs in gene regulation during stem cell differentiation 144
  • Influence of miRNA on stem cell formation and maintenance 144
  • Transcriptional regulators of ESCs control miRNA gene expression 145
  • Stem cells and cloning 145
  • Cell nuclear replacement and cloning 145
  • Nuclear transfer and ESCs 145
  • Cloning from differentiated cells 147
  • Cloning mice from adult stem cells 147
  • Creating interspecies stem cells 148
  • Cloned cells for transplantation medicine 148
  • Claims of cloning of hESCs 148
  • hESCs derived by SCNT 150
  • Cytogenetics of embryonic stem cells 151
  • Stem cell proteomics 151
  • Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic cells, iPSCs and ESCs 152
  • hESC phosphoproteome 152
  • Proteomic studies of mesenchymal stem cells 153
  • Proteomic profiling of neural stem cells 153
  • Proteome Biology of Stem Cells Initiative 153
  • Technologies for mobilization, expansion, and engraftment of stem cells 154
  • Chemoattraction of neuronal stem cells through GABA receptor 154
  • Enhancement of HSC engraftment by calcium-sensing receptor 155
  • Ex vivo expansion of human HSCs in culture 155
  • Ex vivo expansion of MSCs 156
  • Ex vivo expansion of UCB cells for transplantation 156
  • Expansion of adult stem cells by activation of Oct4 156
  • Expansion of transduced HSCs in vivo 156
  • Expansion of stem cells in vivo by Notch receptor ligands 157
  • In vivo adipogenesis induced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells 157
  • Selective mobilization of progenitor cells from bone marrow 157
  • Selective Amplification 158
  • Synthetic substrates for ESC growth and expansion 158
  • Technologies for inducing differentiation of stem cells 158
  • Enhancement of stem cell differentiation by Homspera 158
  • Generation of RBCs from HSCs 159
  • Generation of multiple types of WBCs from hESCs and iPSCs 159
  • Growth factor-induced differentiation of MAPCs 160
  • Lineage selection to induce differentiation of hESCs 160
  • Mechanical strain to induce MSC differentiation 160
  • Neurotrophin-mediated survival and differentiation of hESCs 160
  • Synthetic biology and stem cells 161
  • Use of RNAi to expand the plasticity of autologous adult stem cells 161
  • Use of carbohydrate molecules to induce differentiation of stem cells 162
  • Limitations of the currently available stem cell lines in the US 162
  • Stem cell separation 162
  • Stem cell culture 163
  • Culture of hMSCs 164
  • Elimination of contaminating material in stem cell culture 164
  • Long-term maintenance of MSC multipotency in culture 165
  • Nanofiber scaffolds for stem cell culture 166
  • Conversion of stem cells to functioning adipocytes 166
  • Mass production of ESCs 166
  • Promoting survival of dissociated hESCs 167
  • Analysis and characterization of stem cells 167
  • Havesting and identification of EPCs 168
  • Labeling of stem cells 168
  • Labeling, imaging and tracking of stem cells in vivo 169
  • Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo 169
  • PET imaging for tracking of stem cells 169
  • Project for imaging in stem cell therapy research 169
  • Quantum dots for labeling and imaging of stem cells 170
  • Radiolabeling of MSCs for in vivo tracking 170
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tracking MSCs 170
  • Tracking of transplanted muscle stem cells 171
  • Applications of stem cells 171
  • Commercial development and applications of adult stem cells 172
  • Preparation of cells for therapeutic administration to patients 172
  • Retrodifferentiation of stem cells 172
  • MultiStem 172
  • Controlling the maintenance process of hematopoietic stem cells 173
  • Self renewal and proliferation of HSCs 173
  • Aging and rejuvenation of HSCs 173
  • Aging and MSCs 174
  • iPSC-based modeling of late-onset age-related diseases 174
  • Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation 174
  • Role of stem cells in regeneration 175
  • Promotion of regeneration by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling 175
  • Stem cell activation for regeneration by using glucocortoids 175
  • Stem cells and human reproduction 176
  • Expansion of spermatogonial stem cells 176
  • Conversion of ESCs into spermatogonial stem cells 176
  • Conversion of stem cells to oocytes 177
  • ESCs for treatment of infertility in women 177
  • Cloning human embryos from oocytes matured in the laboratory 178
  • In utero stem cell transplantation 178
  • Innovations in delivery of stem cells 179
  • Polymeric capsules for stem cell delivery 179
  • Immunological aspects of hESC transplantation 180
  • Immunosuppression to prevent rejection of hESC transplants 180
  • Histocompatibility of hESCs 180
  • Strategies for promoting immune tolerance of hESCs 181
  • Stem cells for organ vascularization 181
  • Activation of EphB4 to enhance angiogenesis by EPCs 182
  • Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of iPSCs 182
  • Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of MSCs 183
  • Biofusion by genetically engineering stem cells 183
  • Stem cell gene therapy 183
  • Combination of gene therapy with nuclear transfer 184
  • Gene delivery to stem cells by artificial chromosome expression 184
  • Genetic manipulation of ESCs 184
  • Genetic engineering of human stem cells for enhancing angiogenesis 185
  • HSCs for gene therapy 185
  • iPSCs for targeted gene correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency 186
  • Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for gene transfer in ESCs 186
  • Lentiviral vectors for in vivo gene transfer to stem cells 186
  • Linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer technology 187
  • Mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy 187
  • Microporation for transfection of MSCs 187
  • Regulation of gene expression for SC-based gene therapy 187
  • Stem cells and in utero gene therapy 188
  • Therapeutic applications for hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer 188
  • Targeted genome editing for human repopulating HSCs 188
  • The future of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy 189
  • Stem cell pharmaceutics 189
  • Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells 189
  • Antisense approach for preservation and expansion of stem cells 190
  • Expansion of HSCs in culture by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase 191
  • Manipulation of stem cells with growth factors 191
  • Mobilization of stem cells by cytokines/chemokines 193
  • Mobilization of adult human HSCs by use of inhibitors 194
  • Mobilization of stem cells by HYC750 195
  • Mobilization of stem cells by hyperbaric oxygen 195
  • Mobilization by adenoviral vectors expressing angiogenic factors 196
  • Stem cell mobilization by acetylcholine receptor agonists 196
  • Use of parathyroid hormone to increase HSC mobilization 196
  • Use of small molecule compounds for expansion of HSCs 196
  • Role of stem cells in therapeutic effects of drugs 197
  • Stem cells for drug discovery 197
  • Target identification 197
  • High-throughput screening 198
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs 198
  • ESCs as source of models for drug discovery 199
  • hESC-derived hepatocytes for drug discovery 199
  • Advantages and limitations of use of stem cells for drug discovery 200
  • Stem cells for drug delivery 201
  • Toxicology and drug safety studies using ESCs versus other cells 201
  • Future challenges for stem cell technologies 203
  • Generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells 203
  • Hybrid embryos/cybrids for stem cell research 204
  • In vivo study of human hemopoietic stem cells 205
  • Inhibition of stem cell-derived teratoma formation by small molecules 205
  • Markers for characterizing hESC lines 205
  • MBD3-deficient ESC line 206
  • Research into plasticity of stem cells from adults 206
  • Stem cell biology and cancer 206
  • Stem cells and aging 207
  • Stem cells in space 208
  • Study of the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation 209
  • Switch of stem-cell function from activators to repressors 209
  • Stem cell research at academic centers 210
  • International Regulome Consortium 211
  • Companies involved in stem cell technologies 211
  • Concluding remarks about stem cells 216
  • Challenges and future prospects of stem cell research 216

4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy 219

  • Introduction 219
  • Cell therapy for hematological disorders 219
  • Transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells 219
  • Hemophilias 219
  • Ex vivo cell/gene therapy of hemophilia B 220
  • Cell/gene therapy of hemophilia A 220
  • Hematopoietic stem cell therapy for thrombocytopenia 221
  • Stem cell transplant for sickle cell anemia 221
  • Treatment of chronic acquired anemias 222
  • Implantation of genetically engineered HSCs to deliver rhEpo 222
  • Drugs acting on stem cells for treatment of anemia 222
  • Stem cell therapy of hemoglobinopathies 223
  • Stem cells for treatment of immunoglobulin-light chain amyloidosis 223
  • Future prospects of cell therapy of hematological disorders 223
  • Cell therapy for immunological disorders 224
  • Role of dendritic cells in the immune system 224
  • Modifying immune responses of DCs by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures 224
  • Potential of MSCs as therapy for immune-mediated diseases 225
  • Stem cell therapy of chronic granulomatous disease 225
  • Stem cell therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency 226
  • Stem cell therapy of autoimmune disorders 226
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome 226
  • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with stem cells 227
  • Treatment of Crohn's disease with stem cells 227
  • Stem cell transplants for scleroderma 227
  • Role of T Cells in immunological disorders 228
  • Autologous T cells from adult stem cells 229
  • Cell therapy for graft vs host disease 229
  • MSCs for GVHD 230
  • Cell therapy for viral infections 230
  • Anti-HIV ribozyme delivered in hematopoietic progenitor cells 230
  • Dendritic-cell targeted DNA vaccine for HIV 231
  • Manipulation of T cells for treatment of viral infections 231
  • T-cell therapy for CMV 231
  • T-cell therapy for HIV infection 231
  • T-cell immunity by Overlapping Peptide-pulsed Autologous Cells 232
  • Modification of iPSCs with a mutation to confer resistance to HIV 232
  • Cell therapy of lysosomal storage diseases 233
  • Niemann-Pick disease 233
  • Gaucher's disease 234
  • Fabry's disease 234
  • Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus 235
  • Limitations of current treatment 236
  • Limitations of insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus 236
  • Limitations of pancreatic transplantation 236
  • Islet cell transplantation 236
  • Autologous pancreatic islet cell transplantation in chronic pancreatitis 237
  • Clinical trials of pancreatic islet cell transplants for diabetes 237
  • Drawbacks of islet cell therapy 238
  • Use of an antioxidant peptide to improve islet cell transplantation 238
  • Cdk-6 and cyclin D1 enhance human beta cell replication and function 238
  • Devices for delivery of therapeutic cells in diabetes 239
  • Monitoring of islet cell transplants with MRI 239
  • Concluding remarks about allogeneic islet transplantation for diabetes 239
  • Encapsulation of insulin producing cells 240
  • Encapsulated porcine pancreatic islet cells for pancreas 240
  • Encapsulated insulinoma cells 240
  • Magnetocapsule enables imaging/tracking of islet cell transplants 241
  • Islet precursor cells 241
  • Dedifferentiation of β cells to promote regeneration 242
  • Pharmacological approaches for β cell regeneration 242
  • Xenotransplantation of embryonic pancreatic tissue 243
  • Non-pancreatic tissues for generation of insulin-producing cells 243
  • Exploiting maternal microchimerism to treat diabetes in the child 244
  • Bio-artificial substitutes for pancreas 244
  • Role of stem cells in the treatment of diabetes 244
  • Embryonic stem cells for diabetes 245
  • HSC transplantation to supplement immunosuppressant therapy 246
  • Insulin-producing cells derived from UCB stem cells 246
  • iPSc for diabetes 247
  • Pancreatic stem cells 247
  • Stem cell injection into portal vein of diabetic patients 248
  • Conversion of progenitor cells into insulin-producing cells 248
  • Human neural progenitor cells converted into insulin-producing cells 248
  • Isolation of islet progenitor cells 248
  • Pancreatic progenitor cells 249
  • Cell-based immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes 249
  • Dendritic cell-based therapy 249
  • T regulatory cell therapy for diabetes 250
  • Vaccine for diabetes 250
  • Gene therapy in diabetes 250
  • Viral vectors for gene therapy of diabetes 250
  • Genetically engineered dendritic cells 251
  • Genetically altered liver cells 251
  • Genetically modified stem cells 251
  • Companies developing cell therapy for diabetes 252
  • Concluding remarks about cell and gene therapy of diabetes 252
  • Cell therapy of gastrointestinal disorders 254
  • Inflammatory bowel disease 254
  • Cell therapy for liver disorders 254
  • Types of cells used for hepatic disorders 255
  • Methods of delivery of cells for hepatic disorders 255
  • Bioartificial liver 255
  • Hepatocyte-based artificial liver 256
  • Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device 256
  • Limitations of bioartificial liver 256
  • Proliferating cell-based bioartificial liver 257
  • Stem cells for hepatic disorders 257
  • Deriving hepatocytes from commercially available hMSCs 258
  • Implantation of hepatic cells derived from hMSCs of adipose tissue 258
  • Heterologous adult liver progenitor cells 258
  • Liver stem cell culture 258
  • MSC derived molecules for reversing hepatic failure 259
  • Cell-based gene therapy for liver disorders 259
  • Transplantation of genetically modified fibroblasts 260
  • Transplantation of genetically modified hepatocytes 260
  • Genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells 260
  • iPSCs derived from somatic cells for liver regeneration 260
  • Hepatocyte-like cells derived from human parthenogenetic stem cells 261
  • Clinical applications 261
  • Future prospects of cell-based therapy of hepatic disorders 262
  • Cell therapy of renal disorders 262
  • Bioartificial kidney 263
  • Cell-based repair for vascular access failure in renal disease 263
  • Mesangial cell therapy for glomerular disease 263
  • Stem cells for renal disease 264
  • Role of stem cells in renal repair 264
  • Bone marrow stem cells for renal disease 264
  • Human amniotic fluid stem cells for renal regeneration 265
  • MSC therapy for renal disease 265
  • Cell therapy for pulmonary disorders 265
  • Delivery of cell therapy for pumonary disorders 265
  • Intratracheal injection of cells for pulmonary hypoplasia 266
  • Role of stem cells in pulmonary disorders 266
  • Lung stem cells 266
  • Lung tissue regeneration from stem cells 266
  • Role of stem cells in construction of the Cyberlung 267
  • Respiratory epithelial cells derived from UCB stem cells 267
  • Respiratory epithelial cells derived from hESCs 268
  • Lung tissue engineering with adipose stromal cells 268
  • Cell-based tissue-engineering of airway 268
  • Pulmonary disorders that can be treatable with stem cells 269
  • Acute lung injury and ARDS treated with MSCs 269
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with MSCs 270
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with MSCs 270
  • Cystic fibrosis treatment with genetically engineered MSCs 271
  • Lung regeneration by integrin α6β4-expressing alveolar epithelial cell 271
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment with EPCs 271
  • Cell therapy for disorders of bones and joints 272
  • Repair of fractures and bone defects 272
  • Adult stem cells for bone grafting 273
  • Bone regeneration by human very small embryonic-like (hVSEL) cells 273
  • Cell therapy for osteonecrosis 273
  • Cell therapy for radionecrosis 274
  • Cell therapy for cervical vertebral interbody fusion 274
  • Cell-mediated gene therapy for bone regeneration 274
  • ESCs for bone repair 274
  • hiPSCs for engineering personalized bone grafts 274
  • Intrauterine use of MSCs for osteogenesis imperfecta 275
  • In vivo bone engineering as an alternative to cell transplantation 275
  • In vivo differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for bone regeneration 275
  • MSCs for repair of bone defects 276
  • MSCs for repair of bone fractures 278
  • Osteocel 279
  • Stem cells for repairing skull defects 279
  • Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering 280
  • Spinal fusion using stem cell-based bone grafts 281
  • Osteoarthritis and other injuries to the joints 281
  • Mosaicplasty 282
  • Autologous cultured chondrocytes 282
  • Autologous intervertebral disc chondrocyte transplantation 283
  • Cartilage repair by genetically modified fibroblasts expressing TGF-β 284
  • Cartilage generation from stem cells 284
  • Cartilage engineering from iPSCs 285
  • Repair of osteonecrosis by bone marrow derived MSCs 286
  • Role of cell therapy in repair of knee cartilage injuries 286
  • Chondrocyte cell therapy 287
  • Meniscus-derived stem cells 287
  • Nanobiotechnology scaffolds for MSC-based cartilage reconstruction 288
  • Role of cells in the repair of anterior cruciate ligament injury 288
  • Autologous tenocyte implantation in rotator cuff injury repair 289
  • Platelet injection for tennis elbow 289
  • Cell therapy of rheumatoid arthritis 289
  • Cell therapy for diseases of the eye 290
  • Cell therapy for corneal repair 290
  • Stem cell therapy for limbal stem cell deficiency 292
  • Role of stem cells in fibrosis following eye injury 292
  • Stem cell transplantation for radiation sickness 292
  • MSCs for treatment of radiation damage to the bone 293
  • MSCs for regeneration of ovaries following radiotherapy damage 293
  • Cell therapy for wound healing 293
  • Cells to form skin substitutes for healing ulcers 294
  • CellSpray for wound repair 294
  • Cell therapy for burns 295
  • Closure of incisions with laser guns and cells 296
  • Genetically engineered keratinocytes for wound repair 296
  • Stem cells for skin regeneration 296
  • Follicular stem cells for skin and wound repair 296
  • MSCs for wound healing 297
  • Regeneration of aging skin by adipose-derived stem cells 297
  • Reprogramming autologous stem cells for wound regeneration 298
  • Role of amniotic fluid MSCs in repair of fetal wounds 298
  • Concluding remarks on regeneration of skin by stem cells 298
  • Cell therapy for regeneration 298
  • Stem cells for regenerating organs 298
  • Umbilical cord blood for regeneration 299
  • Role of stem cells in regeneration of esophageal epithelium 300
  • Cell therapy for regeneration of muscle wasting 300
  • Role of cells in tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery 301
  • Scaffolds for tissue engineering 301
  • Improving vascularization of engineered tissues 301
  • Reconstruction of vasculature 302
  • Repair of aging skin by injecting autologous fibroblasts 302
  • Enhancing vascularization by combining cell and gene therapy 302
  • Nanobiotechnology applied to cells for tissue engineering 303
  • Choosing cells for tissue engineering 304
  • Stem cells for tissue repair 304
  • ESCs vs adult SCs for tissue engineering 304
  • Use of adult MSCs for tissue engineering 305
  • Stem cells for tissue engineering of various organs 306
  • Breast reconstruction by adipose tissue-derived stem cells 306
  • Engineering of healthy living teeth from stem cells 306
  • Intra-uterine repair of congenital defects using amniotic fluid MSCs 307
  • Skin regeneration by stem cells as an alternative to face transplant 307
  • Tissue engineering of bone by stem cells 308
  • Cell-based tissue engineering in genitourinary system 308
  • Urinary incontinence 308
  • Tissue engineering of urinary bladder 309
  • Label retaining urothelial cells for bladder repair 310
  • MSCs for bladder repair 310
  • Tissue-engineering of urethra using autologous cells 311
  • Repair of the pelvic floor with stem cells from the uterus 311
  • Reconstruction of vagina from stem cells 311
  • Reconstruction of cartilage for repair of craniofacial defects 312
  • Intraoperative cell therapy 312
  • Cell therapy for rejuvenation 313
  • Reversal of muscle weakness and atrophy in aging 313
  • Reversal of cognitive impairment in aging 313
  • Cell therapy for performance enhancement in sports 314
  • Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine 314
  • Use of stem cells to repair tendon injuries 314
  • Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 315

5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders 317

  • Introduction to cardiovascular disorders 317
  • Limitations of current therapies for myocardial ischemic disease 317
  • Types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders 317
  • Cell-mediated immune modulation for chronic heart disease 319
  • Inducing the proliferation of cardiomyocytes 319
  • Pericardial origin of colony-forming units 319
  • Role of splenic myocytes in repair of the injured heart 320
  • Reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes 320
  • Stem cell-based therapies for cardiac diseases 321
  • Human cardiovascular progenitor cells 321
  • Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes 322
  • Role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in therapies for myocardial ischemia 322
  • Small molecules to enhance myocardial repair by stem cells 322
  • Cell therapy for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease 322
  • MyoCell™ (Bioheart) 323
  • Cardiac stem cells 323
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from epicardium 324
  • Methods of delivery of cells to the heart 325
  • Cellular cardiomyoplasty 325
  • IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for MI 325
  • Non-invasive delivery of cells to the heart by Morph®guide catheter 325
  • Cell therapy for cardiac revascularization 326
  • Transplantation of cardiac progenitor cells for revascularization of myocardium 326
  • Stem cells to prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty 326
  • Role of cells in cardiac tissue repair 327
  • Modulation of cardiac macrophages for repair of infarct 327
  • Transplantation of myoblasts for myocardial infarction 327
  • Patching myocardial infarction with fibroblast culture 328
  • Cardiac repair with myoendothelial cells from skeletal muscle 328
  • Myocardial tissue engineering 329
  • Role of stem cells in repair of the heart 330
  • Role of stem cells in cardiac regeneration following injury 330
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from adult skin cells 330
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs 330
  • Cardiomyocyte differentiation from hIPSCs 332
  • Studies to identify subsets of progenitor cells suitable for cardiac repair 332
  • Technologies for preparation of stem cells for cardiovascular therapy 333
  • Pravastatin for expansion of endogenous progenitor and stem cells 333
  • Cytokine preconditioning of human fetal liver CD133+ SCs 333
  • Expansion of adult cardiac stem cells for transplantation 333
  • Role of MSCs in growth of CSCs 334
  • Role of ESCs in repair of the heart 334
  • ESC transplantation for tumor-free repair of the heart 335
  • Transplantation of stem cells for myocardial infarction 335
  • Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapeutics 335
  • Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor stem cells 336
  • Intracoronary infusion of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells 336
  • Transplantation of cord blood stem cells 337
  • Transplantation of hESCs 337
  • Transplantation of HSCs 338
  • Transplantation of autologous angiogenic cell precursors 338
  • Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells 338
  • Transplantation of bone marrow-derived cells for myocardial infarct 339
  • Transplantation of human umbilical cord perivascular cells 340
  • Transplantation of endothelial cells 341
  • Transplantation of cardiomyocytes differentiated from hESCs 341
  • Stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration 341
  • Regeneration of the chronic myocardial infarcts by HSC therapy 342
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac regeneration 342
  • In vivo tracking of MSCs transplanted in the heart 343
  • MSCs for hibernating myocardium 343
  • Simultaneous transplantation of MSCs and skeletal myoblasts 344
  • Transplantation of genetically modified cells 344
  • Transplantation of genetically modified MSCs 344
  • Transplantation of cells secreting vascular endothelial growth factor 344
  • Transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow stem cells 345
  • Cell transplantation for congestive heart failure 345
  • AngioCell gene therapy for congestive heart failure 346
  • Injection of adult stem cells for CHF 346
  • Intracoronary infusion of cardiac stem cells 347
  • Myoblasts for treatment of congestive heart failure 347
  • Stem cell therapy for dilated cardiac myopathy 347
  • Role of cell therapy in cardiac arrhythmias 348
  • Prevention of myoblast-induced arrhythmias by genetic engineering 348
  • Stem cells as biological pacemakers 348
  • Stem cells for cardiac arrythmias 349
  • Ventricular tachycardia 350
  • ESCs for correction of congenital heart defects 350
  • Cardiac progenitors cells for treatment of heart disease 351
  • Autologus stem cells for chronic myocardial ischemia 351
  • Role of cells in cardiovascular tissue engineering 352
  • Construction of blood vessels with cells 352
  • Engineered arteries for bypass grafts 352
  • Fetal cardiomyocytes seeding in tissue-engineered cardiac grafts 352
  • Targeted delivery of endothelial progenitor cells labeled with nanoparticles 353
  • UCB progenitor cells for engineering heart valves 353
  • Cell-based in vitro regeneration of heart for transplantation 353
  • Cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease 353
  • ALD-301 354
  • Cell/gene therapy for PVD 354
  • Cell therapy for CLI in diabetics 354
  • Colony stimulating factors for enhancing peripheral blood stem cells 354
  • Intramuscular autologous bone marrow cells 355
  • Ixmyelocel-T cell therapy for critical limb ischemia 355
  • Stem cell-coated vascular grafts for femoral-tibial arterial bypass 356
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease 356
  • Mechanism of the benefit of cell therapy for heart disease 358
  • A critical evaluation of cell therapy for heart disease 359
  • Publications of clinical trials of cell therapy for CVD 359
  • Current status of cell therapy for cardiovascular disease 360
  • Future directions for cell therapy of CVD 360
  • Prospects of adult stem cell therapy for repair of heart 361
  • Combination of cells with biomedical scaffolds 361
  • Regeneration of cardiomyocytes without use of cardiac stem cells 362

6. Cell Therapy for Cancer 363

  • Introduction 363
  • Cell therapy technologies for cancer 363
  • Cell-based delivery of anticancer therapy 364
  • Cellular immunotherapy for cancer 364
  • Treatments for cancer by ex vivo mobilization of immune cells 365
  • Granulocytes as anticancer agents 365
  • Neutrophil granulocytes in antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer 366
  • Cancer vaccines 366
  • Autologous tumor cell vaccines 366
  • BIOVAXID 366
  • OncoVAX 367
  • Tumor cells treated with dinitrophenyl 367
  • Vaccines that simultaneously target different cancer antigens 367
  • Gene modified cancer cells vaccines 367
  • GVAX cancer vaccines 368
  • K562/GM-CSF 368
  • Active immunotherapy based on antigen specific to the tumor 369
  • The use of dendritic cells for cancer vaccination 369
  • Autologous dendritic cells loaded ex vivo with telomerase mRNA 369
  • Dendritic cell-targeted protein vaccines 370
  • Dendritic/tumor cell fusion 370
  • Genetically modified dendritic cells 370
  • In vivo manipulation of dendritic cells 371
  • Preclinical and clinical studies with DC vaccines 371
  • Vaccines based on dendritic cell-derived exosomes 372
  • Limitations of DC vaccines for cancer 372
  • Future developments to enhance clinical efficacy of DC vaccines 372
  • Lymphocyte-based cancer therapies 374
  • Adoptive cell therapy 374
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells 375
  • Combination of antiangiogenic agents with ACT 377
  • Expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes 377
  • Genetic engineering of tumor cells to activate T helper cells 377
  • CD8+ T cells for use in tumor immunotherapy 378
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes 378
  • Hybrid cell vaccination 379
  • Chemoimmunotherapy 379
  • Stem cell-based anticancer therapies 379
  • Stem cell transplantation in cancer 379
  • Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation 380
  • Stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies 382
  • Long-term results of HSC transplantation 383
  • Prediction of T-cell reconstitution after HSC transplantation 383
  • HSC transplantation followed by GM-CSF-secreting cell vaccines 383
  • HSC transplantation for renal cell cancer 384
  • Complications of stem cell transplants in cancer 384
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 384
  • Delayed immune reconstitution leading to viral infections and relapse 385
  • Tumor cell contamination 385
  • Neurological complications 385
  • Hepatic veno-occlusive disease 385
  • Current status of the safety of allogeneic HSC transplantation 386
  • Complications of PBSC transplantation in children 386
  • Role of MSCs in cancer 387
  • MSC-mediated delivery of anticancer therapeutics 387
  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 387
  • Umbilical cord blood transplant for leukemia 388
  • hESC-derived NK cells for treatment of cancer 389
  • ESC vaccine for prevention of lung cancer 389
  • Genetic modification of stem cells for cancer therapy 389
  • Genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells 389
  • Use of hematopoietic stem cells to deliver suicide genes to tumors 390
  • Delivery of anticancer agents by genetically engineered MSCs 390
  • Mesenchymal progenitor cells for delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses 391
  • Genetically modified NSCs for treatment of neuroblastoma 391
  • Innovations in cell-based therapy of cancer 392
  • Use of immortalized cells 392
  • Cancer therapy based on natural killer cells 392
  • Cytokine-induced killer cells 392
  • Mesothelin as a target for cancer immunotherapy 392
  • Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy 393
  • Implantation of genetically modified encapsulated cells for anticancer therapy 393
  • Antiangiogenesis therapy by implantation of microencapsulated cells 393
  • Recombinant tumor cells secreting fusion protein 393
  • A device for filtering cancer and stem cells in the blood 394
  • Cancer stem cells 394
  • Role of integrative nuclear signaling in stem cell development 395
  • Cancer stem cell markers 395
  • Breast cancer stem cells 395
  • Role of intestinal stem cells in intestinal polyposis 396
  • Role of endothelial progenitor cells in tumor angiogenesis 396
  • Role of cancer stem cells in metastases 397
  • Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells 397
  • Targeting cancer stem cells in leukemia 398
  • Targeting cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer 398
  • Targeting cancer stem cells to screen anticancer drugs 398
  • Companies involved in cell-based cancer therapy 399
  • American Association for Cancer Research and ESCs 400
  • Future of cell-based immunotherapy for cancer 401

7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders 403

  • Introduction 403
  • Use of stem cells for research in neurosciences 403
  • Cerebral organoids for modeling human brain development 403
  • Regeneration of the nervous system by endogenous stem cells 403
  • Molecular mechanism of neurogenesis 404
  • Generation of neurons from astroglia 404
  • In vivo cell replacement therapy by locally induced neural progenitor cells 405
  • Types of cells used for treatment of neurological disorders 405
  • Activated T lymphocytes 405
  • Differentiation of placenta-derived multipotent cells into neurons 406
  • Mesenchymal stem cells induced to secrete neurotrophic factors 406
  • Neural stem cells 406
  • Development of human CNS stem cells 406
  • Distinction between NSCs and intermediate neural progenitors 407
  • Embryonic stem cell-derived neurogenesis 408
  • Epidermal neural crest stem cells for neurological disorders 408
  • Fusion of NSCs with endogenous neurons 408
  • Induction of NSCs from hESCs 409
  • Mechanism of migration of NSCs to sites of CNS injury 410
  • Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles 410
  • Neural progenitor cells 410
  • Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the brain 413
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells 413
  • Promotion of neural stem cells expansion by betacellulin 413
  • Proteomics of neural stem cells 413
  • Regulation of neural stem cells in the brain 414
  • Role of CSF proteins in regulation of neural progenitor cells 415
  • Sequencing the transcriptomes of neural stem cells 415
  • Study of neural differentiation of hESCs by NeuroStem Chip 416
  • Transformation of neural stem cells into other cell types 416
  • Stem cell transplantation in the CNS 416
  • Development of CNS cells from non-CNS stem cells 416
  • Expansion of adult human neural progenitors 417
  • Hair-follicle stem cells for neural repair 417
  • NSCs for treatment of neurological disorders 418
  • NSCs and scaffolds for regeneration therapy of CNS disorders 418
  • Neurospheres 419
  • Stem cells from olfactory epithelium for transplantation in the CNS 419
  • Stem cells from human umbilical cord blood for CNS disorders 419
  • Choroid plexus cells for transplantation 420
  • Dental pulp cells for neuroprotection 420
  • Derivation of CNS cells from peripheral nervous system 420
  • Fetal tissue transplants 420
  • Immortalized cells for CNS disorders 421
  • Laboratory mice with human brain cells 422
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells for CNS repair 422
  • Ideal cells for transplantation into the nervous system 422
  • Cell therapy techniques for neurological applications 423
  • Carbon nanotubes to aid stem cell therapy of neurological disorders 423
  • Cells used for gene therapy of neurological disorders 423
  • Fibroblasts 423
  • Stem cells 424
  • Neuronal cells 424
  • Immortalized neural progenitor cells 424
  • Astrocytes 425
  • Cerebral endothelial cells 425
  • Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells 426
  • Enhancement of growth of stem cells in the brain by drugs 426
  • C3-induced differentiation and migration of NPC for repair of the brain 426
  • Stem cell therapies of neurological disorders combined with HBO 427
  • hESCs for CNS repair 427
  • MSCs for CNS repair 428
  • Neuronal differentiation of stem cells 428
  • Stem cells preparations for CNS disorders 429
  • Tracking of stem cells in the CNS by nanoparticles and MRI 430
  • Use of neural stem cells to construct the blood brain barrier 430
  • Methods of delivery of cells to the CNS 430
  • Engineered stem cells for drug delivery to the brain 431
  • Encapsulated cells 431
  • CNS delivery of cells by catheters 432
  • CNS neotissue implant 432
  • Intrathecal delivery of stem cells 432
  • Intravascular administration 433
  • Neural stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles 433
  • Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy 433
  • Neuroprotection by cell therapy 434
  • Cells secreting neuroprotective substances 434
  • Stem cells for neuroprotection 434
  • Neuroprotection by intravenous administration of HSCs 435
  • Human UCB-derived stem cells for the aging brain 435
  • hESC transplantation to prevent cognitive impairment from radiation 435
  • Neurodegenerative disorders 435
  • MSCs for therapy of neurodegenerative disorders 436
  • Role of stem cells in neurodegenerative disorders 437
  • Role of NSCs in disorders associated with aging brain 437
  • NSCs for improving memory 438
  • Parkinson's disease 438
  • Cell therapies for PD 439
  • Delivery of cells for PD 440
  • Dopamine neurons for PD 440
  • Graft survival-enhancing drugs 441
  • Encapsulated cells for PD 441
  • Stem cell transplantation in animal models of PD 441
  • Trials of stem cell transplantation in PD patients 443
  • Stem cells for production of glial derived neurotrophic factor 444
  • Potential of regeneration of endogenous stem cells in PD 445
  • Human retinal pigment epithelium cells for PD 445
  • Tumorigenic potential of transplantated dopaminergic hESCs 446
  • Transplantation of embryonic medial ganglionic eminence cells 446
  • Xenografting porcine fetal neurons 447
  • Personalized stem cell therapy for PD 447
  • MSCs for multiple system atrophy 447
  • Cell therapy for Huntington's disease 448
  • Fetal striatal cell transplantation 448
  • Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus cells 448
  • iPSCs for HD 449
  • Mobilization of endogenous neural progenitor cells in HD 449
  • Cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease 449
  • Choroid plexus epithelial cells for AD 449
  • Implantation of genetically engineered cells producing NGF 450
  • Implantation of stem cells derived from the skin 450
  • Neural stem cell implantation for Alzheimer's disease 450
  • Cell therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 451
  • Stem cell techniques for study of ALS 451
  • Use of stem cells for ALS 452
  • Transplantation of glial restricted precursors in ALS 453
  • Stem cell-based drug discovery for ALS 454
  • Cell therapy for demyelinating disorders 454
  • Autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis 455
  • ESCs for remyelination 455
  • Fusokine method of personalized cell therapy of MS 456
  • Genetically engineered macrophages expressing NaV1.5 456
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for MS 456
  • Mechanism of repair of demyelination after NSC transplantation 457
  • MSCs for multiple sclerosis 457
  • Neural progenitor cells for neuroprotection in MS 458
  • T cell-based personalized vaccine for MS 458
  • Stem cells for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 458
  • Stem cell transplantation for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease 459
  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy 459
  • Cell therapy of stroke 459
  • Adult stem cell therapy in stroke 460
  • Implantation of genetically programmed ESCs 461
  • Intravenous infusion of MSCs 461
  • Intravenous infusion of human UCB stem cells 462
  • Intracerebral administration of human adipose tissue stromal cells 463
  • Neural stem cell therapy for stroke 463
  • Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus 464
  • Transplantation of fetal porcine cells 465
  • Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage 465
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke 465
  • Future of cell therapy for stroke 467
  • Cell therapy of traumatic brain injury 467
  • Cell/gene therapy for TBI 468
  • Clinical trials of autologous stem cell therapy for TBI 468
  • Limitations of stem cell therapy for acute TBI 469
  • Improving the microenvironments of transplanted cells in TBI 469
  • Cell therapy for spinal cord injury 469
  • Autoimmune T cells against CNS myelin-associated peptide 470
  • Fetal neural grafts for SCI 470
  • Olfactory-ensheathing cells for SCI 470
  • Oligodendrocyte precursor cells for treatment of SCI 471
  • Schwann cell transplants for SCI 471
  • Transplantation of glial cells for SCI 471
  • Stem cells for SCI 472
  • Bone marrow stem cells for SCI 472
  • Embryonic stem cells for SCI 472
  • Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells in SCI 473
  • Transplantation of MSCs for SCI 473
  • Transplantation of NSCs for SCI 473
  • Transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells 474
  • Transdifferentiation of BM stem cells into cholinergic neurons for SCI 475
  • Evaluation of experimental studies of stem cell transplantation in SCI 475
  • Spinal stem cells for treatment of ischemic injury of spinal cord 475
  • Combined approaches for regeneration in SCI 476
  • Combined cell/gene therapy for SCI 476
  • Delivery of cells in SCI 476
  • Intrathecal injection of cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles 477
  • Intravenous injection of stem cells for spinal cord repair 477
  • Clinical applications of stem cells for SCI 477
  • Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation for SCI 477
  • Cell therapy of syringomyelia 478
  • Cell therapy for neurogenetic disorders 478
  • Hurler's syndrome treated with stem cells 478
  • Krabbe's disease treated with UCB stem cells 479
  • Krabbe's disease treated with combination of cell and gene therapy 479
  • Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies treated with stem cells 480
  • Sanfilippo syndrome type B treated with UCB stem cells 480
  • Cell therapy for lysosomal storage disorders 481
  • Cell therapy for Batten disease 481
  • Cell/gene therapy for Farber's disease 481
  • Genetically modified HSCs for metachromatic leukodystrophy 482
  • Neural stem cells for lysosomal storage disorders 482
  • Cell therapy of epilepsy 482
  • Cell therapy of posttraumatic epilepsy 483
  • Cell therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy 483
  • Cell therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsies 483
  • Cell therapy for developmental neurological disorders 484
  • Cell therapy for cerebral palsy 484
  • Cell-based therapies for malignant brain tumors 485
  • Bone morphogenetic protein for inhibition of glioblastoma multiforme 485
  • Dendritic cell therapy for brain tumors 485
  • Encapsulated cells for brain tumors 486
  • Immunotherapy of GBM targeting cancer stem cells 486
  • Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of gliomas 487
  • Neural stem cells for drug/gene delivery to brain tumors 487
  • Role of cancer stem cells in resistance to radiotherapy 488
  • Stem cell-based therapy targeting EGFR in GBM 489
  • Targeting stem cells in brain tumors 489
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy of glioblastoma multiforme 490
  • Cell therapy for muscle disorders 490
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy 490
  • Combination of cell and pharmacotherapy for DMD 490
  • Myoblast transplant for DMD 491
  • Myoblast-based gene transfer 491
  • Myoblasts lacking the MyoD gene 492
  • Myoblast injection for treatment of other muscular dystrophies 492
  • Role of satellite cells in the treatment of DMD 492
  • Stem cells for DMD 493
  • Wnt7a treatment for DMD 494
  • Cell therapy for autism 494
  • Management of chronic intractable pain by cell therapy 495
  • Implantation of chromaffin cells 495
  • Role of stem cells in management of pain 496
  • Implantation of astrocytes secreting enkephalin 496
  • Cells for delivery of antinociceptive molecules 496
  • Implantation of genetically engineered cells 497
  • Cell therapy for low back pain 497
  • Cell therapy for neuroendocrine disorders 498
  • Pituitary stem cells 498
  • Cell therapy for retinal degenerative disorders 498
  • Adipose-derived stem cells for retinal degeneration 499
  • Delivery of CNTF by encapsulated cell intraocular implants 499
  • ESCs for retinal degenerative disorders 499
  • Genetically engineered retinal pigmented epithelial cell lines 500
  • hESC-derived RPE cells for macular dystrophy 500
  • Human retinal stem cells 500
  • iPSCs for AMD 501
  • Neuroprotective effect of neural progenitor cell transplantation 501
  • Stem cell transplantation in the retina 502
  • Combining cell and gene therapies for retinal disorders 502
  • Stem cell therapy for hearing loss 502
  • Cell thery for peripheral nerve lesions 503
  • Cell transplants for peripheral nerve injuries 503
  • Role of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration 503
  • Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with endothelial progenitor cells 504
  • Complications of cell therapy of neurological disorders 504
  • Tumor formation after CNS transplantation of stem cells 504
  • Uncontrolled differentiation of implanted cells 504
  • Donor stem cell-derived brain tumor 505
  • Tumorigenicity of ESC-derived retinal progenitor cells 505
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy in neurological disorders 505
  • Future prospects for cell therapy of CNS disorders 507

8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy 509

  • Introduction 509
  • Political and ethical aspects of hESC research in the US 509
  • Ethical issues concerning fetal tissues 509
  • Morality and hESC research 509
  • Opponents of hESC research in the US 510
  • Use of hESCs in NIH-supported research 511
  • Politics of hESC research in the US 512
  • Public opinion in the US about hESC research 514
  • Human stem cell cloning in the US 515
  • Stem cell guidelines of various US institutions 516
  • Ethics of transplanting human NSCs into the brains of nonhuman primates 516
  • ESC lines available worldwide 517
  • ESC policies around the world 518
  • Countries with no defined policies on hESC research 518
  • Australia 519
  • Canada 519
  • China 520
  • Denmark 521
  • France 521
  • Germany 521
  • India 523
  • Ireland 524
  • Israel 524
  • Italy 524
  • Japan 525
  • The Netherlands 525
  • Saudi Arabia 526
  • Singapore 526
  • South Africa 527
  • South Korea 527
  • Spain 527
  • Sweden 528
  • Switzerland 528
  • United Kingdom 529
  • UK StemCellBank 529
  • European Union 530
  • EU guidelines for stem cell research 530
  • European stem cell bank 532
  • EMBO's recommendations for stem cell research 532
  • Public opinion in Europe about hESC research 533
  • United Nations, cloning and nuclear transfer 534
  • The Embryo Project for information on ESC research 534
  • Concluding remarks about ethics of ESC research 534
  • Ethical issues concerning umbilical cord blood 535
  • Legal issues associated with stem cells 535
  • Stem cell patents 535
  • Stem cell patents in the United States 535
  • Current status of Thomson patents at WARF 536
  • Stem cell patents in the European Union 536
  • Cell therapy tourism 537

9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy 539

  • Introduction 539
  • Safety issues of cell therapy 539
  • Immune-mediated reactions to transpanted stem cells 539
  • Human virus infections associated with stem cell transplantation 540
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 540
  • Cytomegalovirus 540
  • Opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients 540
  • Cord colitis syndrome 540
  • Carcinogenic potential of stem cells and its prevention 541
  • FDA safety regulations for cell and tissue products 541
  • FDA Guidance on license applications for umbilical cord blood products 542
  • Regulation of cord blood banks in the US 542
  • Regulatory issues for biotechnology-derived drugs 542
  • Regulation of cell selection devices for PBSCs at point of care 543
  • FDA rules for human cells and tissues 544
  • FDA regulation of fetal cellular or tissue products 544
  • FDA and ESC lines 545
  • FDA and clinical trials using hESCs 545
  • Cell and gene therapy INDs placed on hold by the FDA 546
  • Regulatory issues for genetically engineered cell transplants 546
  • FDA guidelines for human tissue transplantation 547
  • FDA considers cultured stem cells for therapy as drugs 547
  • Xenotransplantation 547
  • Clinical Protocol Review and Oversight 547
  • Informed consent and patient education 548
  • Xenotransplantation product sources 548
  • FDA guidelines for xenografts 548
  • Regulatory challenges for the clinical use of cell products 550
  • Regulations relevant to cell therapy in the European Union 550
  • Regulations about use of stem cells in the EU 552
  • Guidelines for cell therapy in the UK 552
  • NIH and stem cells 553
  • hESC lines approved under the new NIH guidelines 553
  • Clinical trials in cell therapy 553

Tables

  • Table 1-1: Landmarks in the history of cell therapy 29
  • Table 1-2: Examples of cells involved in various diseases 34
  • Table 2-1: Types of human cells used in cell therapy 39
  • Table 2-2: A selection of companies providing cell culture media 43
  • Table 2-3: A sampling of companies supplying cell sorters 49
  • Table 2-4: Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery 58
  • Table 2-5: Methods of delivery of cells for therapeutic purposes 60
  • Table 2-6: Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells 64
  • Table 2-7: Companies working on encapsulated cell technology 67
  • Table 2-8: Molecular imaging methods for tracking cells in vivo 72
  • Table 3-1: Various levels of potency relevant to stem cells 80
  • Table 3-2: Companies involved in cord blood banking as a source of stem cells 110
  • Table 3-3: Comparison of techniques for nuclear reprogramming of stem cells 114
  • Table 3-4: Banks of patient-specific iPSC lines 118
  • Table 3-5: Companies providing iPSCs 119
  • Table 3-6: Sources of adult human stem cells 123
  • Table 3-7: Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation 134
  • Table 3-8: Enhancing engraftment, mobilization and expansion of stem cells 154
  • Table 3-9: Applications of stem cells 171
  • Table 3-10: Advantages and limitations of methods for optimizing MSCs 183
  • Table 3-11: Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells 189
  • Table 3-12: Growth factors with positive effects on stem cells and applications 191
  • Table 3-13: Examples of drugs that induce granulocytopenia at stem cell level 202
  • Table 3-14: Academic institutes involved in stem cell research 210
  • Table 3-15: Companies involved in stem cell technologies 211
  • Table 4-1: Therapeutic applications of regulatory T cells (T-regs) 228
  • Table 4-2: Various tissue/cell therapy approaches to the treatment of type 1 diabetes 235
  • Table 4-3: Companies involved in cell therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes 252
  • Table 4-4: Major pulmonary disorders potentially treatable by stem cell manipulation 269
  • Table 4-5: Cell-based repair of knee cartilage damage 286
  • Table 4-6: Intraoperative cell therapy 312
  • Table 5-1: Classification of various types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders 318
  • Table 5-2: Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease 356
  • Table 6-1: Cell therapy technologies used for cancer 363
  • Table 6-2: Companies involved in developing cell-based therapies for cancer 399
  • Table 7-1: NSCs-based approaches for neurological disorders. 418
  • Table 7-2: Experimental use of immortalized cells for CNS disorders 421
  • Table 7-3: Combination of stem cells and HBO in models of neurological disorders 427
  • Table 7-4: Methods for delivering cell therapies in CNS disorders 430
  • Table 7-5: Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy 434
  • Table 7-6: Types of cell used for investigative treatment of Parkinson's disease 439
  • Table 7-7: Status of cell therapies for Parkinson's disease 439
  • Table 7-8: Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage 465
  • Table 7-9: Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke: completed, ongoing and pending 465
  • Table 7-10: Clinical trials with cell-based therapies in neurological disorders (excluding stroke) 505
  • Table 8-1: Listed numbers of ESC lines around the world 517
  • Table 8-2: Stem cell policies around the world 518
  • Table 8-3: European public attitudes about research involving human stem cells 533
  • Table 9-1: Possible adverse reactions and safety issues of cell therapy 539

Figures

  • Figure 1-1: Interrelationships of cell therapy to other technologies 32
  • Figure 1-2: Interrelationships of gene, cell and protein therapies 33
  • Figure 3-1: A simplified biological scheme of embryonic stem Cells 80
  • Figure 3-2: Steps of iPS cell production 115
  • Figure 3-3: hESC-derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer 151
  • Figure 3-4: Flow chart of development of stem cells with potential bottlenecks 217
  • Figure 4-1: Reprograming ESCs/iPSCs cells to β-cells for type 1 diabetes 248
  • Figure 5-1: Ex vivo vs in vivo approaches to regeneration of the heart 318
  • Figure 5-2: hESC-derived cardiomyocytes from laboratory to bedside 331
  • Figure 5-3: Steps in growing a new heart in vitro for transplantation 353
  • Figure 6-1: A scheme of generation and administration of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells 373
  • Figure 6-2: Stem cell transplantation techniques 381
  • Figure 7-1: Stem cells that can give rise to neurons 412
  • Figure 7-2: Scheme of iPSCs for personalized cell therapy of Parkinson disease 447
  • Figure 7-3: Approaches to stem cell therapy in stroke 461

Part II

10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy 6

  • Introduction 6
  • Methods for estimation of cell therapy markets 6
  • Potential markets for cell therapy 7
  • Markets according to technologies 7
  • Stem cell transplants 7
  • Supporting cell technologies 8
  • Blood transfusion market 8
  • Cord blood collection and storage 8
  • Cell therapy and related technologies 8
  • Cell therapy markets according to therapeutic area 8
  • Bone and joint disorders 9
  • Cancer 9
  • Cardiovascular disorders 10
  • Diabetes mellitus 10
  • Liver disorders 11
  • Neurological disorders 11
  • Retinal degenerative diseases market 12
  • Skin and wound care 12
  • Urinary incontinence 12
  • Reconstruction of teeth by stem cell implants 12
  • Market size according to geographical areas 13
  • Unmet market needs in cell therapy 14
  • Drivers of growth of cell therapy markets 14
  • Role of stem cells in regenerative medicine 14
  • Role of cells in markets for artificial organs 15
  • Increase of R&D expense on cell therapy 15
  • Increased used of cell-based drug discovery 15
  • Impact of emerging healthcare trends on cell therapy markets 15
  • Markets for cell therapy tourism 15
  • Involvement of pharmaceutical companies in cell therapy 16
  • Future prospects of cell therapy 16
  • Embryonic stem cell research around the world 16
  • Consortia for ESC research in Europe 17
  • EuroStemCell 17
  • FunGenES 18
  • ESTOOLS 18
  • UK National Stem Cell Network 19
  • Ethical concerns about commercialization of embryonic stem cells 20
  • Education of the physicians 20
  • Public education 20
  • NIH support of stem cell research 20
  • Funding of stem cell research from non-federal sources 21
  • Prospects of venture capital support for stem cell companies 22
  • Cell therapy in the developing countries 23
  • Guidelines for stem cell therapies 24
  • Business strategies 24
  • Formation of networks 25
  • Market potential of autologous vs allogeneic cells 25
  • Future market potential of adult vs embryonic stem cells 26

11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy 28

  • Introduction 28
  • Profiles of selected companies 30
  • Collaborations 347

12. Academic Institutions 358

  • Introduction 358
  • Stem cell center 358
  • Profiles of institutions 359
  • Collaborations 448

13. References 452

Tables

  • Table 10-1: Market size according to cell therapy and related technologies 2013-2023 7
  • Table 10-2: Market size according to therapeutic areas for cell therapy in 2013-2023 9
  • Table 10-3: Cell therapy markets for cardiovascular disorders in 2013-2023 10
  • Table 10-4: Values of cell therapies for neurological disorders in 2013-2023 11
  • Table 10-5: Total cell therapy market in 2013-2023 according to geographical areas 13
  • Table 10-6: Cord blood market according to geographical areas 2013-2023 13
  • Table 10-7: Stem cells transplant market according to geographical areas 2013-2023 13
  • Table 10-8: SWOT Autologous cells vs allogeneic cells 25
  • Table 11-1: Publicly traded cell therapy companies 28
  • Table 11-2: Selected collaborations of cell therapy companies 347
  • Table 12-1: Therapeutic uses of stem cells 366
  • Table 12-2: Commercial collaborations of US academic institutes relevant to stem cells 448

Figures

  • Figure 10-1: Unmet needs in cell therapy 14
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