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市場調査レポート - 70916

細胞治療:技術・市場・企業

Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies

発行 Jain Pharmabiotech
出版日 ページ情報 英文
価格
細胞治療:技術・市場・企業 Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies
出版日: 2014年10月01日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

当レポートでは、医療活動で重要な役割を担う細胞治療技術についての最新調査データから、創薬における細胞の役割などを分析するほか、同分野の関連企業、学術機関に関する情報を提供すべく、概略下記の構成でお届けします。

パートI

エグゼクティブサマリー

第1章 細胞治療についてのイントロダクション

  • イントロダクション
  • 細胞治療の偉業史
  • 細胞治療技術の相関性
  • 細胞・組織の移植
  • 細胞とタンパク質、遺伝子治療
  • 細胞治療と再生医療
  • 細胞治療と組織工学
  • 疾患関与細胞に基く治療法
  • 細胞を治療に利用することの利点
  • 細胞利用の薬物送達

第2章 細胞治療技術

  • イントロダクション
  • 治療に使用される細胞の種類
  • 細胞の供給源
  • 細胞治療の基礎技術
  • 細胞利用の薬物送達
  • 細胞治療のための薬品送達システム
  • 人工細胞
  • 細胞のカプセル化
  • 電気穿孔法(エレクトロポレーション)
  • 遺伝子治療
  • 細胞の生体内追跡
  • 細胞治療の発展におけるナノテクノロジーの役割
  • 臓器発達への細胞移植
  • 細胞移植と公差
  • 病原性体細胞の切除と交換

第3章 幹細胞

  • イントロダクション
  • 幹細胞の生物学
  • 幹細胞の供給源
  • ヒト体細胞由来の人工多能性幹細胞(iPS細胞)
  • 条件付きで自己複製する誘発前駆細胞
  • 成人ヒト幹細胞の供給源
  • 「成人幹細胞」対「胚幹細胞(ES細胞)
  • 供給源によるヒト幹細胞の比較
  • VENT(Ventrally Emigrating Neural Tube)細胞
  • 幹細胞銀行
  • 幹細胞技術
  • 幹細胞の用途
  • 幹細胞技術が向き合う今後の課題
  • 学術機関における幹細胞研究
  • 幹細胞技術に関与する企業
  • 幹細胞についての結び
  • 幹細胞研究における今後の課題と展望

第4章 細胞治療の臨床用途

  • イントロダクション
  • 血液疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 免疫疾患に対する細胞治療
  • ウィルス性感染症に対する細胞治療
  • リソソーム蓄積症の細胞治療
  • 真性糖尿病に対する細胞治療
  • 消化器疾患の細胞治療
  • 肝臓疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 腎臓疾患の細胞治療
  • 肺疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 骨・関節疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 眼球疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 放射線症に対する幹細胞移植
  • 再生医療への細胞治療
  • 創傷治癒:皮膚・軟組織の修復
  • 組織工学および再建手術における組織工学の役割
  • 若返りに向けた細胞治療
  • スポーツにおける能力強化に向けた細胞治療
  • 獣医学における幹細胞の応用

第5章 心疾患に対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • 心筋虚血障害に対する現行療法の限界
  • 心疾患に対する細胞治療の種類
  • アテローム性冠動脈疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 心臓への細胞送達方法
  • 血管再開通術のための細胞治療
  • 心血管組織修復における細胞の役割
  • 心臓修復における幹細胞の役割
  • 遺伝子組み換え細胞の移植
  • 先天性心臓欠陥矯正のための胚性幹細胞(ESC)
  • 心臓手術のための心血管前駆細胞
  • 慢性心筋虚血に使用される自己幹細胞
  • 心血管組織工学における細胞の役割
  • 末梢血管疾患に対する細胞治療
  • 心疾患における細胞治療の役割
  • 心臓疾患細胞治療の利点のメカニズム
  • 心臓疾患細胞治療に不可欠な評価
  • 脳血管疾患細胞治療の将来的方向性

第6章 がんに対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • がんに対する細胞治療技術
  • 抗がん治療の細胞利用送達
  • がんに対する細胞免疫療法
  • がんワクチン
  • 幹細胞利用の抗がん治療
  • 細胞利用がん治療における技術革新
  • 細胞利用がん治療に関与する企業
  • American Association for Cancer Research and ESCs
  • 細胞利用がん治療の将来

第7章 神経疾患対する細胞治療

  • イントロダクション
  • 内因性幹細胞による神経系の再生
  • 神経疾患治療に使用される細胞の種類
  • 神経学用途に対する細胞治療法
  • 細胞治療に適した神経疾患
  • 中枢神経疾患細胞治療の複雑化
  • 神経疾患における細胞治療の治験
  • 中枢神経疾患細胞治療の将来展望

第8章 細胞治療の倫理的・政治的局面

  • イントロダクション
  • 米国におけるヒトES細胞研究の倫理的・政治的局面
  • 世界で利用可能な幹細胞ライン
  • 各国の幹細胞政策
  • 臍帯血に関する倫理問題
  • 参謀治療ツーリズム

第9章 細胞治療の安全・規制局面

  • イントロダクション
  • 細胞治療の安全性問題
  • 細胞・組織製品に対するFDA(米国食品医薬品局)安全基準
  • 米国における臍帯血規制
  • バイオテクノロジー系薬剤に対する規制問題
  • 医療現場における末梢血幹細胞移植用細胞選定装置の規制
  • ヒト細胞・組織に対するFDA規定
  • 異種移植
  • EUにおける細胞治療関連の規制
  • NIH(国立衛生研究所)と幹細胞
  • 細胞治療における治験
  • 幹細胞特許

図表

パートII

第10章 細胞治療の市場および将来展望

  • イントロダクション
  • 市場規模の推定方法
  • 細胞治療市場の有望性
  • 地域別市場規模
  • 細胞治療におけるアンメットニーズ
  • 細胞治療市場発展の推進要因
  • 細胞治療の将来展望
  • 事業戦略

第11章 細胞治療に関与する企業

第12章 学術機関

第13章 参考資料

図表

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目次

This report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. Role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. Current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2013, and projected to 2023.The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair as well as diabetes mellitus will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 294 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 285 alliances. Of these companies, 160 are involved in stem cells. Profiles of 72 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 61 Tables and 16 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,200 selected references, which are cited in the text.

Table of Contents

Part I

0. Executive Summary 25

1. Introduction to Cell Therapy 29

  • Introduction 29
  • Historical landmarks of cell therapy 29
  • Interrelationship of cell therapy technologies 31
  • Cells and organ transplantation 32
  • Cells and protein/gene therapy 32
  • Cell therapy and regenerative medicine 33
  • Cells therapy and tissue engineering 34
  • Therapy based on cells involved in disease 34
  • Advantages of therapeutic use of cells 35
  • Cell-based drug delivery 35
  • Cells as vehicles for gene delivery 35
  • Red blood cells as vehicles for drug delivery 36
  • Advantages of cell-based drug delivery 37
  • Limitations of cell-based drug delivery 37

2. Cell Therapy Technologies 39

  • Introduction 39
  • Cell types used for therapy 39
  • Sources of cells 39
  • Xenografts 40
  • Cell lines 40
  • Immortalized cells 40
  • Blood component therapy 40
  • Therapeutic apheresis 40
  • Leukoreduction 41
  • Platelet therapy 41
  • Basic technologies for cell therapy 42
  • Cell culture 42
  • Automated cell culture devices 42
  • Cell culture for adoptive cell therapy 43
  • Observation of stem cell growth and viability 43
  • OpTmizer™ CTS™ T cell expansion tissue culture medium 43
  • Companies involved in cell culture 43
  • Cell sorting 45
  • Flow cytometry 45
  • Applications of flow cytometry 46
  • A dielectrophoretic system for cell separation 46
  • Adult stem cell sorting by identification of surface markers 46
  • ALDESORTER system for isolation of stem cells 47
  • Dynabead technology for cell sorting 47
  • Elutra® Cell Separation System 47
  • Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies 48
  • Molecular beacons for specific detection and isolation of stem cells 48
  • Multitarget magnetic activated cell sorter 48
  • Nanocytometry 49
  • Scepter™ cytometer 49
  • Companies supplying cell sorters 49
  • Cell analysis 50
  • Cell analyzers 50
  • In vivo cell imaging 51
  • Measuring cell density 51
  • Single-cell gene expression analysis 51
  • Fluorescent in situ RNA sequencing 53
  • Preservation of cells 53
  • Innovations in cryopreservation 53
  • Packaging of cells 54
  • Selective expansion of T cells for immunotherapy 55
  • Cloning and cell therapy 55
  • Techniques for cell manipulation 56
  • Altering function of adult human cells 56
  • Cell-based drug discovery 57
  • Advantages and limitations of cell-based assays for drug discovery 57
  • Advantages and limitations of cell-based toxicity screening 57
  • Quality control of cells for drug discovery 58
  • Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery 58
  • Drug delivery systems for cell therapy 60
  • Intravenous delivery of stem cells 60
  • Intraarterial delivery of stem cells 60
  • Pharmacologically active microcarriers 60
  • Targeted delivery of engineered cells to specific tissues via circulation 61
  • Devices for delivery of cell therapy 61
  • Artificial cells 62
  • Applications of artificial cells 62
  • Cell encapsulation 63
  • Cell-in-a-Box® 63
  • Diffusion capsule for cells 64
  • Encapsulated cell biodelivery 64
  • Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells 64
  • Nitric oxide delivery by encapsulated cells 66
  • Implantation of microencapulated genetically modified cells 66
  • Ferrofluid microcapsules for tracking with MRI 67
  • Companies involved in encapsulated cell technology 67
  • Electroporation 68
  • Gene therapy 68
  • Cell-mediated gene therapy 69
  • Fibroblasts 69
  • Chondrocyte 70
  • Skeletal muscle cells 70
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells 70
  • Keratinocytes 71
  • Hepatocytes 71
  • Lymphocytes 71
  • Mammalian artificial chromosomes 72
  • In vivo tracking of cells 72
  • Molecular imaging for tracking cells 72
  • MRI technologies for tracking cells 73
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents 73
  • Visualization of gene expression in vivo by MRI 74
  • Optogenetic monitoring of cell therapies 74
  • Role of nanobiotechnology in development of cell therapy 75
  • Cell transplantation for development of organs 75
  • Cells transplantation and tolerance 76
  • Strategies to improve tolerance of transplanted cells 76
  • Encapsulation to prevent immune rejection 76
  • Prevention of rejection of xenotransplants 76
  • Expansion of allospecific regulatory T cells 77
  • Removal and replacement of pathogenic cells of the body 77
  • Therapeutic leukocytapheresis 78

3. Stem Cells 79

  • Introduction 79
  • Biology of stem cells 79
  • Embryonic stem cells 80
  • Growth and differentiation of ESCs 80
  • Mechanisms of differentiation of ESCs 81
  • Chemical regulation of stem cell differentiation 81
  • In vitro differentiation of hESCs 81
  • SIRT1 regulation during stem cell differentiation 82
  • Regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation 82
  • hESCs for reprogramming human somatic nuclei 82
  • Stem cells differentiation in the pituitary gland 83
  • Influence of microenvironment on ESCs 83
  • Role of genes in differentiation of ESCs 83
  • Global transcription in pluripotent ESCs 83
  • Role of p53 tumor suppressor gene in stem cell differentiation 84
  • Role of Pax3 gene in stem cell differentiation 84
  • Signaling pathways and ESC genes 84
  • Epigenetics of hESCs 85
  • Chromatin as gene regulator for ESC development 86
  • Mechanism of regulation of stem cells for regeneration of body tissues 86
  • Role of microenvironments in the regulation of stem cells 86
  • Regulation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells 87
  • Parthenogenesis and human stem cells 87
  • Uniparental ESCs 88
  • Bone marrow stem cells 89
  • Hematopoietic stem cells 89
  • Role of HSCs in the immune system 90
  • Derivation of HSCs from ESCs 91
  • Mesenchymal stem cells 91
  • Multipotent adult progenitor cells 93
  • Side population (SP) stem cells 93
  • Differentiation of adult stem cells 94
  • Growth and differentiation of HSCs 95
  • HSCs and aging 95
  • Mathematical modeling of differentiation of HSCs 95
  • Role of prions in self renewal of HSCs 96
  • Signaling pathways in the growth and differentiation of HSCs 96
  • Sources of stem cells 97
  • Sources of of human embryonic stem cells 97
  • Nuclear transfer to obtain hESCs 97
  • Direct derivation of hESCs from embryos without nuclear transfer 98
  • Alternative methods of obtaining hESCs 98
  • Establishing hESC lines without destruction of embryo 99
  • Altered nuclear transfer 100
  • Advantages and disadvantages of ESCs for transplantation 100
  • Use of ESC cultures as an alternative source of tissue for transplantation 100
  • Spermatogonial stem cells 101
  • Very small embryonic-like stem cells 102
  • Amniotic fluid as a source of stem cells 102
  • Amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration 103
  • Generation of iPS cells from AF cells 103
  • Placenta as source of stem cells 104
  • Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells 104
  • Placenta as a source of HSCs 104
  • Umbilical cord as a source of MSCs 105
  • Umbilical cord blood as source of neonatal stem cells 105
  • Cryopreservation of UCB stem cells 106
  • Epigenetic programming for expansion of UCB cells 106
  • UCB as source of MSCs 107
  • Applications of UCB 107
  • Advantages of UCB 107
  • Limitations of the use of UCB and measures to address them 108
  • Licensing and patent disputes involving UCB 109
  • Infections following UCB transplants 109
  • Unanswered questions about UCB transplantation 110
  • Companies involved in UCB banking 110
  • UCB banking in the UK 111
  • US national UCB banking system 112
  • Future prospects of UCB as a source of stem cells 113
  • Techniques of nuclear reprogramming for stem cells 113
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human somatic cells 114
  • Characteristics of iPSCs 114
  • DNA methylation patterns of iPS cells 115
  • Techniques for obtaining iPSCs 115
  • iPSCs derived from skin 115
  • iPSCs derived through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) 116
  • iPSCs derived from oocytes 116
  • iPSCs derived from adult stem cells using SCNT 116
  • iPSCs derived from blood 116
  • Use of retroviral vectors for generation of iPSCs 117
  • Use of non-integrating viral vectors for generation of iPSCs 117
  • Generation of other cells from iPSCs 118
  • Generation of HSCs from iPSCs 118
  • Generation of MSCs from iPSCs 118
  • Generation of RBCs from iPSCs 119
  • Banks providing patient-specific iPSC lines 119
  • Companies providing iPSCs 119
  • Generation of clinically relevant iPSCs 120
  • iPSCs and disease modeling 121
  • iPSCs for patient-specific regenerative medicine 121
  • Concluding remarks about clinical potential of iPSCs 122
  • Induced conditional self-renewing progenitor cells 122
  • Epiblast stem cells 123
  • Comparison of development of human and mouse ESCs 123
  • Conversion of hESCs to mouse ESC-like naïve states 123
  • Sources of adult human stem cells 124
  • Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells 124
  • Intravenous infusion of adipose tissue derived MSCs 124
  • iPSCs derived from adult human adipose stem cells 125
  • Regulation of adipose stem cells differentiation 125
  • Transforming adult adipose stem cells into other cells 125
  • Multipotent stem-like cells derived from vascular endothelial cells 126
  • Skin as a source of stem cells 126
  • Controlling the maturation of embryonic skin stem cells 126
  • Epidermal neural crest stem cells 126
  • Follicle stem cells 127
  • Mesenchymal stem cells in skin 127
  • Regulation of stem cells in hair follicles 128
  • Skin-derived precursor cells 128
  • Regulation of epidermal stem cells by circadian rhythms 128
  • Stem cells in teeth 129
  • Peripheral blood stem cells 129
  • Spleen as a source of adult stem cells 130
  • Search for master stem cells 130
  • Vascular cell platform to self-renew adult HSC 130
  • Adult stem cells vs embryonic stem cells 131
  • Biological differences between adult and embryonic stem cells 131
  • Neural crest stem cells from adult hair follicles 131
  • Transdifferentiation potential of adult stem cells 132
  • Attempts at stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotentcy 133
  • Limitations of adult stem cells 133
  • Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation 134
  • VENT cells 134
  • ESC banking 134
  • Stem cell technologies 135
  • Analysis of stem cell growth and differentiation 135
  • Activation of bone marrow stem cells into therapeutic cells 135
  • Role of nitric oxide in stem cell mobilization and differentiation 135
  • Role of natriuretic peptide receptor-C in self-renewal of murine ESCs 136
  • Stem cell biomarkers 136
  • Endoglin as a functional biomarker of HSCs 136
  • STEMPRO® EZChek™ for analysis of biomarkers of hESCs 137
  • SSEA-4 as biomarker of MSCs 137
  • p75NTR as a biomarker to isolate adipose tissue-derived stem cells 137
  • Neural stem cell biomarker 137
  • Protein expression profile as biomarker of stem cells 138
  • Real-time PCR for quantification of protein biomarkers 138
  • Study of stem cell pathways 138
  • Stem cell genomics 139
  • Gene expression in hESCs 139
  • Genomic alterations in cultured hESCs 139
  • Study of transcriptional regulation of stem cell genes 140
  • Casanova gene in zebrafish 140
  • Nanog gene 141
  • Gene inactivation to study hESCs 142
  • RNAi to study gene inactivation in hESCs 142
  • Study of ESC development by inducible RNAi 143
  • Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes 143
  • Homologous recombination of ESCs 143
  • Gene modification in genomes of hESCs and hiPSCs using zinc-finger nuclease 143
  • miRNA and stem cells 144
  • Role of miRNAs in gene regulation during stem cell differentiation 144
  • Influence of miRNA on stem cell formation and maintenance 145
  • Transcriptional regulators of ESCs control miRNA gene expression 145
  • Stem cells and cloning 145
  • Cell nuclear replacement and cloning 145
  • Nuclear transfer and ESCs 146
  • Cloning from differentiated cells 147
  • Cloning mice from adult stem cells 147
  • Creating interspecies stem cells 148
  • Cloned cells for transplantation medicine 148
  • Claims of cloning of hESCs 149
  • hESCs derived by SCNT 150
  • Cytogenetics of embryonic stem cells 151
  • Stem cell proteomics 151
  • Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic cells, iPSCs and ESCs 152
  • hESC phosphoproteome 152
  • Proteomic studies of mesenchymal stem cells 153
  • Proteomic profiling of neural stem cells 153
  • Proteome Biology of Stem Cells Initiative 153
  • Technologies for mobilization, expansion, and engraftment of stem cells 154
  • Chemoattraction of neuronal stem cells through GABA receptor 154
  • Enhancement of HSC engraftment by calcium-sensing receptor 155
  • Ex vivo expansion of human HSCs in culture 155
  • Ex vivo expansion of MSCs 156
  • Ex vivo expansion of UCB cells for transplantation 156
  • Expansion of adult stem cells by activation of Oct4 156
  • Expansion of transduced HSCs in vivo 156
  • Expansion of stem cells in vivo by Notch receptor ligands 157
  • In vivo adipogenesis induced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells 157
  • Selective mobilization of progenitor cells from bone marrow 157
  • Selective Amplification 158
  • Synthetic substrates for ESC growth and expansion 158
  • Technologies for inducing differentiation of stem cells 158
  • Enhancement of stem cell differentiation by Homspera 158
  • Generation of RBCs from HSCs 159
  • Generation of multiple types of WBCs from hESCs and iPSCs 159
  • Growth factor-induced differentiation of MAPCs 160
  • Lineage selection to induce differentiation of hESCs 160
  • Mechanical strain to induce MSC differentiation 160
  • Neurotrophin-mediated survival and differentiation of hESCs 160
  • Synthetic biology and stem cells 161
  • Use of RNAi to expand the plasticity of autologous adult stem cells 161
  • Use of carbohydrate molecules to induce differentiation of stem cells 162
  • Limitations of the currently available stem cell lines in the US 162
  • Stem cell separation 162
  • Stem cell culture 163
  • Culture of hMSCs 164
  • Elimination of contaminating material in stem cell culture 164
  • Long-term maintenance of MSC multipotency in culture 165
  • Nanofiber scaffolds for stem cell culture 166
  • Conversion of stem cells to functioning adipocytes 166
  • Mass production of ESCs 166
  • Promoting survival of dissociated hESCs 167
  • Analysis and characterization of stem cells 167
  • Havesting and identification of EPCs 168
  • Labeling of stem cells 168
  • Labeling, imaging and tracking of stem cells in vivo 169
  • Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo 169
  • PET imaging for tracking of stem cells 169
  • Project for imaging in stem cell therapy research 169
  • Quantum dots for labeling and imaging of stem cells 170
  • Radiolabeling of MSCs for in vivo tracking 170
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tracking MSCs 170
  • Tracking of transplanted muscle stem cells 171
  • Applications of stem cells 171
  • Commercial development and applications of adult stem cells 172
  • Preparation of cells for therapeutic administration to patients 172
  • Retrodifferentiation of stem cells 172
  • MultiStem 172
  • Controlling the maintenance process of hematopoietic stem cells 173
  • Self renewal and proliferation of HSCs 173
  • Aging and rejuvenation of HSCs 173
  • Aging and MSCs 174
  • iPSC-based modeling of late-onset age-related diseases 174
  • Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation 174
  • Role of stem cells in regeneration 175
  • Promotion of regeneration by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling 175
  • Stem cell activation for regeneration by using glucocortoids 175
  • Stem cells and human reproduction 176
  • Expansion of spermatogonial stem cells 176
  • Conversion of ESCs into spermatogonial stem cells 176
  • Conversion of stem cells to oocytes 177
  • ESCs for treatment of infertility in women 177
  • Cloning human embryos from oocytes matured in the laboratory 178
  • In utero stem cell transplantation 178
  • Innovations in delivery of stem cells 179
  • Polymeric capsules for stem cell delivery 179
  • Immunological aspects of hESC transplantation 180
  • Immunosuppression to prevent rejection of hESC transplants 180
  • Histocompatibility of hESCs 180
  • Strategies for promoting immune tolerance of hESCs 181
  • Stem cells for organ vascularization 181
  • Activation of EphB4 to enhance angiogenesis by EPCs 182
  • Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of iPSCs 182
  • Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of MSCs 183
  • Biofusion by genetically engineering stem cells 183
  • Stem cell gene therapy 183
  • Combination of gene therapy with nuclear transfer 184
  • Gene delivery to stem cells by artificial chromosome expression 184
  • Genetic manipulation of ESCs 184
  • Genetic engineering of human stem cells for enhancing angiogenesis 185
  • HSCs for gene therapy 185
  • iPSCs for targeted gene correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency 186
  • Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for gene transfer in ESCs 186
  • Lentiviral vectors for in vivo gene transfer to stem cells 186
  • Linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer technology 187
  • Mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy 187
  • Microporation for transfection of MSCs 187
  • Regulation of gene expression for SC-based gene therapy 187
  • Stem cells and in utero gene therapy 188
  • Therapeutic applications for hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer 188
  • Targeted genome editing for human repopulating HSCs 188
  • The future of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy 189
  • Stem cell pharmaceutics 189
  • Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells 189
  • Antisense approach for preservation and expansion of stem cells 190
  • Expansion of HSCs in culture by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase 191
  • Manipulation of stem cells with growth factors 191
  • Mobilization of stem cells by cytokines/chemokines 193
  • Mobilization of adult human HSCs by use of inhibitors 194
  • Mobilization of stem cells by HYC750 195
  • Mobilization of stem cells by hyperbaric oxygen 195
  • Mobilization by adenoviral vectors expressing angiogenic factors 196
  • Stem cell mobilization by acetylcholine receptor agonists 196
  • Use of parathyroid hormone to increase HSC mobilization 196
  • Use of small molecule compounds for expansion of HSCs 196
  • Role of stem cells in therapeutic effects of drugs 197
  • Stem cells for drug discovery 197
  • Target identification 197
  • High-throughput screening 198
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs 198
  • ESCs as source of models for drug discovery 199
  • hESC-derived hepatocytes for drug discovery 199
  • Advantages and limitations of use of stem cells for drug discovery 200
  • Stem cells for drug delivery 201
  • Toxicology and drug safety studies using ESCs versus other cells 201
  • Future challenges for stem cell technologies 203
  • Generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells 203
  • Hybrid embryos/cybrids for stem cell research 204
  • In vivo study of human hemopoietic stem cells 205
  • Inhibition of stem cell-derived teratoma formation by small molecules 205
  • Markers for characterizing hESC lines 205
  • MBD3-deficient ESC line 206
  • Research into plasticity of stem cells from adults 206
  • Reversion of human stem cells to ground state pluripotency 206
  • Stem cell biology and cancer 207
  • Stem cells and aging 208
  • Stem cells in space 209
  • Study of the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation 209
  • Switch of stem-cell function from activators to repressors 210
  • Stem cell research at academic centers 210
  • International Regulome Consortium 211
  • Companies involved in stem cell technologies 212
  • Concluding remarks about stem cells 217
  • Challenges and future prospects of stem cell research 217

4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy 219

  • Introduction 219
  • Cell therapy for hematological disorders 219
  • Transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells 219
  • Hemophilias 219
  • Ex vivo cell/gene therapy of hemophilia B 220
  • Cell/gene therapy of hemophilia A 220
  • Hematopoietic stem cell therapy for thrombocytopenia 221
  • Stem cell transplant for sickle cell anemia 221
  • Treatment of chronic acquired anemias 222
  • Implantation of genetically engineered HSCs to deliver rhEpo 222
  • Drugs acting on stem cells for treatment of anemia 222
  • Stem cell therapy of hemoglobinopathies 223
  • iPSC-based therapy for β-thalassemia 223
  • Stem cells for treatment of immunoglobulin-light chain amyloidosis 223
  • Future prospects of cell therapy of hematological disorders 224
  • Cell therapy for immunological disorders 224
  • Role of dendritic cells in the immune system 225
  • Modifying immune responses of DCs by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures 225
  • Potential of MSCs as therapy for immune-mediated diseases 225
  • Stem cell therapy of chronic granulomatous disease 225
  • Stem cell therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency 226
  • Stem cell therapy of autoimmune disorders 226
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome 227
  • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with stem cells 227
  • Treatment of Crohn's disease with stem cells 227
  • Stem cell transplants for scleroderma 228
  • Role of T Cells in immunological disorders 228
  • Autologous T cells from adult stem cells 229
  • Cell therapy for graft vs host disease 230
  • T cell infusion for suppressing GVHD 230
  • MSCs for GVHD 231
  • Cell therapy for viral infections 231
  • Anti-HIV ribozyme delivered in hematopoietic progenitor cells 231
  • Dendritic-cell targeted DNA vaccine for HIV 231
  • Manipulation of T cells for treatment of viral infections 232
  • T-cell therapy for CMV 232
  • T-cell therapy for HIV infection 232
  • T-cell immunity by Overlapping Peptide-pulsed Autologous Cells 233
  • Modification of iPSCs with a mutation to confer resistance to HIV 233
  • Cell therapy of lysosomal storage diseases 233
  • Niemann-Pick disease 234
  • Gaucher's disease 235
  • Fabry's disease 235
  • Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus 235
  • Limitations of current treatment 236
  • Limitations of insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus 236
  • Limitations of pancreatic transplantation 237
  • Islet cell transplantation 237
  • Autologous pancreatic islet cell transplantation in chronic pancreatitis 237
  • Clinical trials of pancreatic islet cell transplants for diabetes 237
  • Drawbacks of islet cell therapy 238
  • Use of an antioxidant peptide to improve islet cell transplantation 239
  • Cdk-6 and cyclin D1 enhance human beta cell replication and function 239
  • Devices for delivery of therapeutic cells in diabetes 239
  • Monitoring of islet cell transplants with MRI 240
  • Concluding remarks about allogeneic islet transplantation for diabetes 240
  • Encapsulation of insulin producing cells 241
  • Encapsulated porcine pancreatic islet cells for pancreas 241
  • Encapsulated insulinoma cells 241
  • Magnetocapsule enables imaging/tracking of islet cell transplants 242
  • Islet precursor cells 242
  • Dedifferentiation of β cells to promote regeneration 243
  • Pharmacological approaches for β cell regeneration 243
  • Xenotransplantation of embryonic pancreatic tissue 244
  • Non-pancreatic tissues for generation of insulin-producing cells 244
  • Exploiting maternal microchimerism to treat diabetes in the child 244
  • Bio-artificial substitutes for pancreas 245
  • Role of stem cells in the treatment of diabetes 245
  • Embryonic stem cells for diabetes 245
  • HSC transplantation to supplement immunosuppressant therapy 247
  • Insulin-producing cells derived from UCB stem cells 247
  • iPSc for diabetes 247
  • Pancreatic stem cells 248
  • Stem cell injection into portal vein of diabetic patients 248
  • Conversion of progenitor cells into insulin-producing cells 249
  • Human neural progenitor cells converted into insulin-producing cells 249
  • Isolation of islet progenitor cells 249
  • Pancreatic progenitor cells 249
  • Cell-based immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes 250
  • Dendritic cell-based therapy 250
  • T regulatory cell therapy for diabetes 250
  • Vaccine for diabetes 251
  • Gene therapy in diabetes 251
  • Viral vectors for gene therapy of diabetes 251
  • Genetically engineered dendritic cells 252
  • Genetically altered liver cells 252
  • Genetically modified stem cells 252
  • Companies developing cell therapy for diabetes 252
  • Concluding remarks about cell and gene therapy of diabetes 253
  • Cell therapy of gastrointestinal disorders 254
  • Inflammatory bowel disease 255
  • Cell therapy for liver disorders 255
  • Types of cells used for hepatic disorders 255
  • Methods of delivery of cells for hepatic disorders 256
  • Bioartificial liver 256
  • Hepatocyte-based artificial liver 256
  • Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device 257
  • Limitations of bioartificial liver 257
  • Proliferating cell-based bioartificial liver 257
  • Stem cells for hepatic disorders 258
  • Deriving hepatocytes from commercially available hMSCs 258
  • Implantation of hepatic cells derived from hMSCs of adipose tissue 259
  • Heterologous adult liver progenitor cells 259
  • Liver stem cell culture 259
  • MSC derived molecules for reversing hepatic failure 260
  • Cell-based gene therapy for liver disorders 260
  • Transplantation of genetically modified fibroblasts 260
  • Transplantation of genetically modified hepatocytes 261
  • Genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells 261
  • iPSCs derived from somatic cells for liver regeneration 261
  • Hepatocyte-like cells derived from human parthenogenetic stem cells 261
  • Clinical applications 262
  • Future prospects of cell-based therapy of hepatic disorders 263
  • Cell therapy of renal disorders 263
  • Bioartificial kidney 263
  • Cell-based repair for vascular access failure in renal disease 264
  • Mesangial cell therapy for glomerular disease 264
  • Stem cells for renal disease 264
  • Role of stem cells in renal repair 265
  • Bone marrow stem cells for renal disease 265
  • Human amniotic fluid stem cells for renal regeneration 266
  • MSC therapy for renal disease 266
  • Cell therapy for pulmonary disorders 266
  • Delivery of cell therapy for pumonary disorders 266
  • Intratracheal injection of cells for pulmonary hypoplasia 266
  • Role of stem cells in pulmonary disorders 267
  • Lung stem cells 267
  • Lung tissue regeneration from stem cells 267
  • Role of stem cells in construction of the Cyberlung 268
  • Respiratory epithelial cells derived from UCB stem cells 268
  • Respiratory epithelial cells derived from hESCs 268
  • Lung tissue engineering with adipose stromal cells 269
  • Cell-based tissue-engineering of airway 269
  • Pulmonary disorders that can be treatable with stem cells 269
  • Acute lung injury and ARDS treated with MSCs 270
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with MSCs 271
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with MSCs 271
  • Cystic fibrosis treatment with genetically engineered MSCs 271
  • Lung regeneration by integrin α6β4-expressing alveolar epithelial cell 272
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment with EPCs 272
  • Cell therapy for disorders of bones, joints and tendons 273
  • Repair of fractures and bone defects 273
  • Adult stem cells for bone grafting 274
  • Bone regeneration by human very small embryonic-like (hVSEL) cells 274
  • Cell therapy for osteonecrosis 274
  • Cell therapy for radionecrosis 275
  • Cell therapy for cervical vertebral interbody fusion 275
  • Cell-mediated gene therapy for bone regeneration 275
  • ESCs for bone repair 275
  • hiPSCs for engineering personalized bone grafts 275
  • Intrauterine use of MSCs for osteogenesis imperfecta 276
  • In vivo bone engineering as an alternative to cell transplantation 276
  • In vivo differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for bone regeneration 276
  • MSCs for repair of bone defects 277
  • MSCs for repair of bone fractures 279
  • Osteocel 280
  • Stem cells for repairing skull defects 280
  • Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering 281
  • Spinal fusion using stem cell-based bone grafts 282
  • Osteoarthritis and other injuries to the joints 282
  • Mosaicplasty 283
  • Autologous cultured chondrocytes 283
  • Autologous intervertebral disc chondrocyte transplantation 284
  • Cartilage repair by genetically modified fibroblasts expressing TGF-β 285
  • Cartilage generation from stem cells 285
  • Cartilage engineering from iPSCs 287
  • Repair of osteonecrosis by bone marrow derived MSCs 287
  • Role of cell therapy in repair of knee cartilage injuries 287
  • Chondrocyte cell therapy 288
  • Meniscus-derived stem cells 289
  • Nanobiotechnology scaffolds for MSC-based cartilage reconstruction 289
  • Role of cells in the repair of anterior cruciate ligament injury 289
  • Autologous tenocyte implantation in rotator cuff injury repair 290
  • Platelet injection for tennis elbow 290
  • Cell therapy of rheumatoid arthritis 291
  • Cell therapy of tendon injuries 291
  • Cell therapy for diseases of the eye 292
  • Cell therapy for corneal repair 292
  • Stem cell therapy for limbal stem cell deficiency 293
  • Role of stem cells in fibrosis following eye injury 294
  • Stem cell transplantation for radiation sickness 294
  • MSCs for treatment of radiation damage to the bone 294
  • MSCs for regeneration of ovaries following radiotherapy damage 295
  • Cell therapy for wound healing 295
  • Cells to form skin substitutes for healing ulcers 295
  • CellSpray for wound repair 296
  • Cell therapy for burns 297
  • Closure of incisions with laser guns and cells 297
  • Genetically engineered keratinocytes for wound repair 298
  • Stem cells for skin regeneration 298
  • Follicular stem cells for skin and wound repair 298
  • MSCs for wound healing 299
  • Regeneration of aging skin by adipose-derived stem cells 299
  • Reprogramming autologous stem cells for wound regeneration 299
  • Role of amniotic fluid MSCs in repair of fetal wounds 299
  • Concluding remarks on regeneration of skin by stem cells 300
  • Cell therapy for regeneration 300
  • Cell therapy for regeneration of muscle wasting 300
  • Role of stem cells in regeneration of esophageal epithelium 301
  • Stem cells for regenerating organs 301
  • Stem cell-based regenerative therapy for xerostomia 302
  • Umbilical cord blood for regeneration 302
  • Role of cells in tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery 303
  • Scaffolds for tissue engineering 303
  • Improving vascularization of engineered tissues 303
  • Reconstruction of vasculature 304
  • Repair of aging skin by injecting autologous fibroblasts 304
  • Enhancing vascularization by combining cell and gene therapy 304
  • Nanobiotechnology applied to cells for tissue engineering 305
  • Choosing cells for tissue engineering 306
  • Stem cells for tissue repair 306
  • ESCs vs adult SCs for tissue engineering 306
  • Use of adult MSCs for tissue engineering 307
  • Stem cells for tissue engineering of various organs 308
  • Breast reconstruction by adipose tissue-derived stem cells 308
  • Engineering of healthy living teeth from stem cells 308
  • Intra-uterine repair of congenital defects using amniotic fluid MSCs 309
  • Skin regeneration by stem cells as an alternative to face transplant 309
  • Tissue engineering of bone by stem cells 310
  • Cell-based tissue engineering in genitourinary system 310
  • Urinary incontinence 310
  • Tissue engineering of urinary bladder 311
  • Label retaining urothelial cells for bladder repair 312
  • MSCs for bladder repair 312
  • Tissue-engineering of urethra using autologous cells 313
  • Repair of the pelvic floor with stem cells from the uterus 313
  • Reconstruction of vagina from stem cells 313
  • Reconstruction of cartilage for repair of craniofacial defects 314
  • Intraoperative cell therapy 314
  • Cell therapy for rejuvenation 315
  • Reversal of muscle weakness and atrophy in aging 315
  • Reversal of cognitive impairment in aging 315
  • Cell therapy for performance enhancement in sports 316
  • Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine 316
  • Use of stem cells to repair tendon injuries 316
  • Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 317

5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders 319

  • Introduction to cardiovascular disorders 319
  • Limitations of current therapies for myocardial ischemic disease 319
  • Types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders 319
  • Cell-mediated immune modulation for chronic heart disease 321
  • Inducing the proliferation of cardiomyocytes 321
  • Pericardial origin of colony-forming units 321
  • Role of splenic myocytes in repair of the injured heart 322
  • Reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes 322
  • Stem cell-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases 323
  • Human cardiovascular progenitor cells 323
  • Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes 324
  • Magnetic antibody-linked nanoparticles to deliver cells to the heart 324
  • Role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in therapies for myocardial ischemia 324
  • Small molecules to enhance myocardial repair by stem cells 324
  • Stem cells and atherosclerosis 325
  • Cell therapy for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease 325
  • MyoCell™ (Bioheart) 325
  • Cardiac stem cells 326
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from epicardium 327
  • Methods of delivery of cells to the heart 327
  • Cellular cardiomyoplasty 328
  • IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for MI 328
  • Non-invasive delivery of cells to the heart by Morph®guide catheter 328
  • Cell therapy for cardiac revascularization 328
  • Transplantation of cardiac progenitor cells for revascularization of myocardium 328
  • Stem cells to prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty 329
  • Role of cells in cardiac tissue repair 330
  • Modulation of cardiac macrophages for repair of infarct 330
  • Transplantation of myoblasts for myocardial infarction 330
  • Patching myocardial infarction with fibroblast culture 331
  • Cardiac repair with myoendothelial cells from skeletal muscle 331
  • Myocardial tissue engineering 331
  • Role of stem cells in repair of the heart 332
  • Role of stem cells in cardiac regeneration following injury 332
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from adult skin cells 333
  • Cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs 333
  • Cardiomyocyte differentiation from hIPSCs 335
  • Studies to identify subsets of progenitor cells suitable for cardiac repair 335
  • Technologies for preparation of stem cells for cardiovascular therapy 335
  • Pravastatin for expansion of endogenous progenitor and stem cells 335
  • Cytokine preconditioning of human fetal liver CD133+ SCs 336
  • Expansion of adult cardiac stem cells for transplantation 336
  • Role of MSCs in growth of CSCs 337
  • Role of ESCs in repair of the heart 337
  • ESC transplantation for tumor-free repair of the heart 338
  • Transplantation of stem cells for myocardial infarction 338
  • Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapeutics 338
  • Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor stem cells 339
  • Intracoronary infusion of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells 339
  • Transplantation of cord blood stem cells 340
  • Transplantation of hESCs 340
  • Transplantation of HSCs 340
  • Transplantation of autologous angiogenic cell precursors 341
  • Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells 341
  • Transplantation of bone marrow-derived cells for myocardial infarct 342
  • Transplantation of human umbilical cord perivascular cells 343
  • Transplantation of endothelial cells 343
  • Transplantation of cardiomyocytes differentiated from hESCs 344
  • Stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration 344
  • Regeneration of the chronic myocardial infarcts by HSC therapy 344
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac regeneration 345
  • In vivo tracking of MSCs transplanted in the heart 346
  • MSCs for hibernating myocardium 346
  • Simultaneous transplantation of MSCs and skeletal myoblasts 347
  • Transplantation of genetically modified cells 347
  • Transplantation of genetically modified MSCs 347
  • Transplantation of cells secreting vascular endothelial growth factor 347
  • Transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow stem cells 347
  • Cell transplantation for congestive heart failure 347
  • AngioCell gene therapy for congestive heart failure 348
  • Injection of adult stem cells for CHF 349
  • Intracoronary infusion of cardiac stem cells 349
  • Myoblasts for treatment of congestive heart failure 350
  • Stem cell therapy for dilated cardiac myopathy 350
  • Role of cell therapy in cardiac arrhythmias 350
  • Prevention of myoblast-induced arrhythmias by genetic engineering 351
  • Stem cells as biological pacemakers 351
  • Stem cells for cardiac arrythmias 352
  • Ventricular tachycardia 352
  • ESCs for correction of congenital heart defects 353
  • Cardiac progenitors cells for treatment of heart disease 353
  • Autologus stem cells for chronic myocardial ischemia 354
  • Role of cells in cardiovascular tissue engineering 354
  • Construction of blood vessels with cells 354
  • Engineered arteries for bypass grafts 355
  • Fetal cardiomyocytes seeding in tissue-engineered cardiac grafts 355
  • Targeted delivery of endothelial progenitor cells labeled with nanoparticles 355
  • UCB progenitor cells for engineering heart valves 355
  • Cell-based in vitro regeneration of heart for transplantation 356
  • Cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease 356
  • ALD-301 356
  • Cell/gene therapy for PVD 357
  • Cell therapy for CLI in diabetics 357
  • Colony stimulating factors for enhancing peripheral blood stem cells 357
  • Intramuscular autologous bone marrow cells 358
  • Ixmyelocel-T cell therapy for critical limb ischemia 358
  • Stem cell-coated vascular grafts for femoral-tibial arterial bypass 358
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease 359
  • Mechanism of the benefit of cell therapy for heart disease 361
  • A critical evaluation of cell therapy for heart disease 361
  • Publications of clinical trials of cell therapy for CVD 362
  • Current status of cell therapy for cardiovascular disease 362
  • Future directions for cell therapy of CVD 363
  • Combination of cells with biomedical scaffolds 363
  • Prospects of adult stem cell therapy for repair of heart 363
  • Role of cells in regeneration of the heart 364
  • Regeneration of cardiomyocytes without use of cardiac stem cells 364

6. Cell Therapy for Cancer 367

  • Introduction 367
  • Cell therapy technologies for cancer 367
  • Cell-based delivery of anticancer therapy 368
  • Cellular immunotherapy for cancer 368
  • Treatments for cancer by ex vivo mobilization of immune cells 369
  • Granulocytes as anticancer agents 369
  • Neutrophil granulocytes in antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer 370
  • Cancer vaccines 370
  • Autologous tumor cell vaccines 370
  • BIOVAXID 370
  • OncoVAX 371
  • Tumor cells treated with dinitrophenyl 371
  • Vaccines that simultaneously target different cancer antigens 371
  • Gene modified cancer cells vaccines 371
  • GVAX cancer vaccines 372
  • K562/GM-CSF 372
  • Active immunotherapy based on antigen specific to the tumor 373
  • The use of dendritic cells for cancer vaccination 373
  • Autologous dendritic cells loaded ex vivo with telomerase mRNA 373
  • Dendritic cell-targeted protein vaccines 374
  • Dendritic/tumor cell fusion 374
  • Genetically modified dendritic cells 374
  • In vivo manipulation of dendritic cells 375
  • Preclinical and clinical studies with DC vaccines 375
  • Vaccines based on dendritic cell-derived exosomes 376
  • Limitations of DC vaccines for cancer 376
  • Future developments to enhance clinical efficacy of DC vaccines 376
  • Lymphocyte-based cancer therapies 378
  • Adoptive cell therapy 378
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T cells 379
  • Combination of antiangiogenic agents with ACT 381
  • Expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes 381
  • Genetic engineering of tumor cells to activate T helper cells 381
  • CD8+ T cells for use in tumor immunotherapy 382
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes 382
  • Hybrid cell vaccination 383
  • Chemoimmunotherapy 383
  • Stem cell-based anticancer therapies 384
  • Stem cell transplantation in cancer 384
  • Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation 384
  • Stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies 386
  • Long-term results of HSC transplantation 387
  • Prediction of T-cell reconstitution after HSC transplantation. 387
  • HSC transplantation followed by GM-CSF-secreting cell vaccines 387
  • HSC transplantation for renal cell cancer 388
  • Complications of stem cell transplants in cancer 388
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). 388
  • Delayed immune reconstitution leading to viral infections and relapse 389
  • Tumor cell contamination 389
  • Neurological complications 389
  • Hepatic veno-occlusive disease 389
  • Current status and safety of allogeneic HSC transplantation 390
  • Complications of PBSC transplantation in children 390
  • Role of MSCs in cancer 391
  • MSC-mediated delivery of anticancer therapeutics 391
  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 392
  • Umbilical cord blood transplant for leukemia 392
  • hESC-derived NK cells for treatment of cancer 393
  • ESC vaccine for prevention of lung cancer 393
  • Genetic modification of stem cells for cancer therapy 394
  • Genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells 394
  • Use of hematopoietic stem cells to deliver suicide genes to tumors 394
  • Delivery of anticancer agents by genetically engineered MSCs 394
  • Mesenchymal progenitor cells for delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses 395
  • Genetically modified NSCs for treatment of neuroblastoma 395
  • Innovations in cell-based therapy of cancer 396
  • Use of immortalized cells 396
  • Cancer therapy based on natural killer cells 396
  • Cytokine-induced killer cells 397
  • Mesothelin as a target for cancer immunotherapy 397
  • Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy 397
  • Implantation of genetically modified encapsulated cells for anticancer therapy 398
  • Antiangiogenesis therapy by implantation of microencapsulated cells 398
  • Recombinant tumor cells secreting fusion protein 398
  • A device for filtering cancer and stem cells in the blood 398
  • Cancer stem cells 399
  • Role of integrative nuclear signaling in stem cell development 399
  • Cancer stem cell markers 399
  • Breast cancer stem cells 400
  • Role of intestinal stem cells in intestinal polyposis 400
  • Role of endothelial progenitor cells in tumor angiogenesis 401
  • Role of cancer stem cells in metastases 401
  • Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells 401
  • Targeting cancer stem cells in leukemia 402
  • Targeting cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer 403
  • Targeting cancer stem cells to screen anticancer drugs 403
  • Companies involved in cell-based cancer therapy 403
  • American Association for Cancer Research and ESCs 405
  • Future of cell-based immunotherapy for cancer 405

7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders 407

  • Introduction 407
  • Use of stem cells for research in neurosciences 407
  • Cerebral organoids for modeling human brain development 407
  • Regeneration of the nervous system by endogenous stem cells 407
  • Molecular mechanism of neurogenesis 408
  • Generation of neurons from astroglia 408
  • In vivo cell replacement therapy by locally induced neural progenitor cells 409
  • Types of cells used for treatment of neurological disorders 409
  • Activated T lymphocytes 409
  • Differentiation of placenta-derived multipotent cells into neurons 410
  • Mesenchymal stem cells induced to secrete neurotrophic factors 410
  • Neural stem cells 410
  • Development of human CNS stem cells 410
  • Direct conversion of adult fibroblasts into neural progenitor cells 411
  • Distinction between NSCs and intermediate neural progenitors 412
  • Embryonic stem cell-derived neurogenesis 412
  • Epidermal neural crest stem cells for neurological disorders 412
  • Fusion of NSCs with endogenous neurons 413
  • Induction of NSCs from hESCs 413
  • Mechanism of migration of NSCs to sites of CNS injury 414
  • Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles 414
  • Neural progenitor cells 415
  • Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the brain 417
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells 417
  • Promotion of neural stem cells expansion by betacellulin 417
  • Proteomics of neural stem cells 417
  • Regulation of neural stem cells in the brain 418
  • Role of CSF proteins in regulation of neural progenitor cells 419
  • Sequencing the transcriptomes of neural stem cells 419
  • Study of neural differentiation of hESCs by NeuroStem Chip 420
  • Transformation of neural stem cells into other cell types 420
  • Stem cell transplantation in the CNS 420
  • Development of CNS cells from non-CNS stem cells 420
  • Expansion of adult human neural progenitors 421
  • Hair-follicle stem cells for neural repair 421
  • NSCs for treatment of neurological disorders 422
  • NSCs and scaffolds for regeneration therapy of CNS disorders 422
  • Neurospheres 423
  • Stem cells from olfactory epithelium for transplantation in the CNS 423
  • Stem cells from human umbilical cord blood for CNS disorders 423
  • Choroid plexus cells for transplantation 424
  • Dental pulp cells for neuroprotection 424
  • Derivation of CNS cells from peripheral nervous system 424
  • Fetal tissue transplants 424
  • Immortalized cells for CNS disorders 425
  • Laboratory mice with human brain cells 426
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells for CNS repair 426
  • Ideal cells for transplantation into the nervous system 426
  • Cell therapy techniques for neurological applications 427
  • Carbon nanotubes to aid stem cell therapy of neurological disorders 427
  • Cells used for gene therapy of neurological disorders 427
  • Fibroblasts 427
  • Stem cells 428
  • Neuronal cells 428
  • Immortalized neural progenitor cells 428
  • Astrocytes 429
  • Cerebral endothelial cells 429
  • Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells 430
  • Enhancement of growth of stem cells in the brain by drugs 430
  • C3-induced differentiation and migration of NPC for repair of the brain 430
  • Stem cell therapies of neurological disorders combined with HBO 431
  • hESCs for CNS repair 431
  • Motor neurons derived from stem cells 431
  • MSCs for CNS repair 432
  • Neuronal differentiation of stem cells 433
  • Stem cells preparations for CNS disorders 433
  • Tracking of stem cells in the CNS by nanoparticles and MRI 434
  • Use of neural stem cells to construct the blood brain barrier 434
  • Methods of delivery of cells to the CNS 435
  • Engineered stem cells for drug delivery to the brain 435
  • Encapsulated cells 435
  • CNS delivery of cells by catheters 436
  • CNS neotissue implant 436
  • Intrathecal delivery of stem cells 436
  • Intravascular administration 437
  • Neural stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles 438
  • Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy 438
  • Neuroprotection by cell therapy 438
  • Cells secreting neuroprotective substances 439
  • Stem cells for neuroprotection 439
  • Neuroprotection by intravenous administration of HSCs 439
  • Human UCB-derived stem cells for the aging brain 439
  • hESC transplantation to prevent cognitive impairment from radiation 440
  • Neurodegenerative disorders 440
  • MSCs for therapy of neurodegenerative disorders 440
  • Role of stem cells in neurodegenerative disorders 441
  • Role of NSCs in disorders associated with aging brain 442
  • NSCs for improving memory 442
  • Parkinson's disease 443
  • Cell therapies for PD 443
  • Delivery of cells for PD 444
  • Dopamine neurons for PD 444
  • Graft survival-enhancing drugs 445
  • Encapsulated cells for PD 445
  • Stem cell transplantation in animal models of PD 446
  • Trials of stem cell transplantation in PD patients 447
  • Stem cells for production of glial derived neurotrophic factor 449
  • Potential of regeneration of endogenous stem cells in PD 449
  • Human retinal pigment epithelium cells for PD 449
  • Tumorigenic potential of transplantated dopaminergic hESCs 450
  • Transplantation of embryonic medial ganglionic eminence cells 450
  • Xenografting porcine fetal neurons 451
  • Personalized stem cell therapy for PD 451
  • MSCs for multiple system atrophy 452
  • Cell therapy for Huntington's disease 452
  • Fetal striatal cell transplantation 452
  • Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus cells 453
  • iPSCs for HD 453
  • Mobilization of endogenous neural progenitor cells in HD 453
  • Cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease 454
  • Choroid plexus epithelial cells for AD 454
  • Implantation of genetically engineered cells producing NGF 454
  • Implantation of stem cells derived from the skin 455
  • Neural stem cell implantation for Alzheimer's disease 455
  • Cell therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 456
  • Stem cell techniques for study of ALS 456
  • Use of stem cells for ALS 456
  • Transplantation of glial restricted precursors in ALS 458
  • Stem cell-based drug discovery for ALS 458
  • Cell therapy for demyelinating disorders 459
  • Autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis 459
  • ESCs for remyelination 460
  • Fusokine method of personalized cell therapy of MS 460
  • Genetically engineered macrophages expressing NaV1.5 460
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for MS 461
  • Mechanism of repair of demyelination after NSC transplantation 461
  • MSCs for multiple sclerosis 462
  • Neural progenitor cells for neuroprotection in MS 462
  • T cell-based personalized vaccine for MS 463
  • Stem cells for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 463
  • Stem cell transplantation for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease 463
  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy 463
  • Cell therapy of stroke 464
  • Adult stem cell therapy in stroke 465
  • Implantation of genetically programmed ESCs 465
  • Intravenous infusion of MSCs 466
  • Intravenous infusion of human UCB stem cells 466
  • Intracerebral administration of human adipose tissue stromal cells 467
  • Neural stem cell therapy for stroke 467
  • Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus 468
  • Transplantation of fetal porcine cells 469
  • Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage 469
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke 469
  • Future of cell therapy for stroke 471
  • Cell therapy of traumatic brain injury 472
  • Cell/gene therapy for TBI 472
  • Clinical trials of autologous stem cell therapy for TBI 473
  • Limitations of stem cell therapy for acute TBI 473
  • Improving the microenvironments of transplanted cells in TBI 473
  • Cell therapy for spinal cord injury 474
  • Autoimmune T cells against CNS myelin-associated peptide 474
  • Fetal neural grafts for SCI 474
  • Olfactory-ensheathing cells for SCI 474
  • Oligodendrocyte precursor cells for treatment of SCI 475
  • Schwann cell transplants for SCI 475
  • Transplantation of glial cells for SCI 475
  • Stem cells for SCI 476
  • Bone marrow stem cells for SCI 476
  • Embryonic stem cells for SCI 476
  • Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells in SCI 477
  • Transplantation of MSCs for SCI 477
  • Transplantation of NSCs for SCI 478
  • Transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells 479
  • Transdifferentiation of BM stem cells into cholinergic neurons for SCI 479
  • Evaluation of experimental studies of stem cell transplantation in SCI 479
  • Spinal stem cells for treatment of ischemic injury of spinal cord 479
  • Combined approaches for regeneration in SCI 480
  • Combined cell/gene therapy for SCI 480
  • Delivery of cells in SCI 481
  • Intrathecal injection of cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles 481
  • Intravenous injection of stem cells for spinal cord repair 481
  • Clinical applications of stem cells for SCI 482
  • Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation for SCI 482
  • Cell therapy of syringomyelia 482
  • Cell therapy for neurogenetic disorders 482
  • Hurler's syndrome treated with stem cells 482
  • Krabbe's disease treated with UCB stem cells 483
  • Krabbe's disease treated with combination of cell and gene therapy 483
  • Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies treated with stem cells 484
  • Sanfilippo syndrome type B treated with UCB stem cells 484
  • Cell therapy for lysosomal storage disorders 485
  • Cell therapy for Batten disease 485
  • Cell/gene therapy for Farber's disease 486
  • Genetically modified HSCs for metachromatic leukodystrophy 486
  • Neural stem cells for lysosomal storage disorders 486
  • Cell therapy of epilepsy 486
  • Cell therapy of posttraumatic epilepsy 487
  • Cell therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy 487
  • Cell therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsies 488
  • Cell therapy for developmental neurological disorders 488
  • Cell therapy for cerebral palsy 488
  • Cell-based therapies for malignant brain tumors 489
  • Bone morphogenetic protein for inhibition of glioblastoma multiforme 489
  • Dendritic cell therapy for brain tumors 489
  • Encapsulated cells for brain tumors 490
  • Immunotherapy of GBM targeting cancer stem cells 491
  • Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of gliomas 491
  • Neural stem cells for drug/gene delivery to brain tumors 492
  • Role of cancer stem cells in resistance to radiotherapy 493
  • Stem cell-based therapy targeting EGFR in GBM 493
  • Targeting stem cells in brain tumors 493
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy of glioblastoma multiforme 494
  • Cell therapy for muscle disorders 494
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy 494
  • Combination of cell and pharmacotherapy for DMD 495
  • Myoblast transplant for DMD 495
  • Myoblast-based gene transfer 495
  • Myoblasts lacking the MyoD gene 496
  • Myoblast injection for treatment of other muscular dystrophies 496
  • Role of satellite cells in the treatment of DMD 496
  • Stem cells for DMD 497
  • Wnt7a treatment for DMD 498
  • Cell therapy for autism 499
  • Management of chronic intractable pain by cell therapy 499
  • Implantation of chromaffin cells 500
  • Role of stem cells in management of pain 500
  • Implantation of astrocytes secreting enkephalin 500
  • Cells for delivery of antinociceptive molecules 501
  • Implantation of genetically engineered cells 501
  • Cell therapy for low back pain 501
  • Cell therapy for neuropathic itch 502
  • Cell therapy for neuroendocrine disorders 502
  • Pituitary stem cells 502
  • Cell therapy for retinal degenerative disorders 502
  • Adipose-derived stem cells for retinal degeneration 503
  • Delivery of CNTF by encapsulated cell intraocular implants 503
  • ESCs for retinal degenerative disorders 504
  • Genetically engineered retinal pigmented epithelial cell lines 504
  • hESC-derived RPE cells for macular dystrophy 504
  • Human retinal stem cells 505
  • iPSCs for AMD 505
  • Neuroprotective effect of neural progenitor cell transplantation 506
  • Stem cell transplantation in the retina 506
  • Combining cell and gene therapies for retinal disorders 507
  • Stem cell therapy for hearing loss 507
  • Cell thery for peripheral nerve lesions 508
  • Cell transplants for peripheral nerve injuries 508
  • Role of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration 508
  • Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with endothelial progenitor cells 508
  • Complications of cell therapy of neurological disorders 509
  • Tumor formation after CNS transplantation of stem cells 509
  • Uncontrolled differentiation of implanted cells 509
  • Donor stem cell-derived brain tumor 509
  • Tumorigenicity of ESC-derived retinal progenitor cells 509
  • Clinical trials of cell therapy in neurological disorders 510
  • Future prospects for cell therapy of CNS disorders 511

8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy 513

  • Introduction 513
  • Political and ethical aspects of hESC research in the US 513
  • Ethical issues concerning fetal tissues 513
  • Morality and hESC research 513
  • Opponents of hESC research in the US 514
  • Use of hESCs in NIH-supported research 515
  • Politics of hESC research in the US 516
  • Public opinion in the US about hESC research 518
  • Human stem cell cloning in the US 519
  • Stem cell guidelines of various US institutions 520
  • Ethics of transplanting human NSCs into the brains of nonhuman primates 520
  • ESC lines available worldwide 521
  • ESC policies around the world 522
  • Countries with no defined policies on hESC research 522
  • Australia 523
  • Canada 523
  • China 524
  • Denmark 525
  • France 525
  • Germany 525
  • India 527
  • Ireland 528
  • Israel 528
  • Italy 528
  • Japan 529
  • The Netherlands 529
  • Saudi Arabia 530
  • Singapore 530
  • South Africa 531
  • South Korea 531
  • Spain 531
  • Sweden 532
  • Switzerland 532
  • United Kingdom 533
  • UK StemCellBank 533
  • European Union 534
  • EU guidelines for stem cell research 534
  • European stem cell bank 536
  • EMBO's recommendations for stem cell research 536
  • Public opinion in Europe about hESC research 537
  • United Nations, cloning and nuclear transfer 538
  • The Embryo Project for information on ESC research 538
  • Concluding remarks about ethics of ESC research 538
  • Ethical issues concerning umbilical cord blood 539
  • Legal issues associated with stem cells 539
  • Stem cell patents 539
  • Stem cell patents in the United States 539
  • Current status of Thomson patents at WARF 540
  • Stem cell patents in the European Union 540
  • Cell therapy tourism 541

9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy 543

  • Introduction 543
  • Safety issues of cell therapy 543
  • Immune-mediated reactions to transpanted stem cells 543
  • Human virus infections associated with stem cell transplantation 544
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 544
  • Cytomegalovirus 544
  • Opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients 544
  • Cord colitis syndrome 544
  • Carcinogenic potential of stem cells and its prevention 545
  • FDA safety regulations for cell and tissue products 545
  • FDA Guidance on license applications for umbilical cord blood products 546
  • Regulation of cord blood banks in the US 546
  • Regulatory issues for biotechnology-derived drugs 546
  • Regulation of cell selection devices for PBSCs at point of care 547
  • FDA rules for human cells and tissues 548
  • FDA regulation of fetal cellular or tissue products 548
  • FDA and ESC lines 549
  • FDA and clinical trials using hESCs 549
  • Cell and gene therapy INDs placed on hold by the FDA 550
  • Regulatory issues for genetically engineered cell transplants 550
  • FDA guidelines for human tissue transplantation 551
  • FDA considers cultured stem cells for therapy as drugs 551
  • Xenotransplantation 551
  • Clinical Protocol Review and Oversight 551
  • Informed consent and patient education 552
  • Xenotransplantation product sources 552
  • FDA guidelines for xenografts 552
  • Regulatory challenges for the clinical use of cell products 554
  • Regulations relevant to cell therapy in the European Union 554
  • Regulations about use of stem cells in the EU 556
  • Guidelines for cell therapy in the UK 556
  • NIH and stem cells 557
  • hESC lines approved under the new NIH guidelines 557
  • Clinical trials in cell therapy 557

Tables

  • Table 1-1: Landmarks in the history of cell therapy 29
  • Table 1-2: Examples of cells involved in various diseases 34
  • Table 2-1: Types of human cells used in cell therapy 39
  • Table 2-2: A selection of companies providing cell culture media 43
  • Table 2-3: A sampling of companies supplying cell sorters 49
  • Table 2-4: Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery 58
  • Table 2-5: Methods of delivery of cells for therapeutic purposes 60
  • Table 2-6: Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells 65
  • Table 2-7: Companies working on encapsulated cell technology 67
  • Table 2-8: Molecular imaging methods for tracking cells in vivo 72
  • Table 3-1: Various levels of potency relevant to stem cells 80
  • Table 3-2: Companies involved in cord blood banking as a source of stem cells 110
  • Table 3-3: Comparison of techniques for nuclear reprogramming of stem cells 114
  • Table 3-4: Banks of patient-specific iPSC lines 119
  • Table 3-5: Companies providing iPSCs 120
  • Table 3-6: Sources of adult human stem cells 124
  • Table 3-7: Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation 134
  • Table 3-8: Enhancing engraftment, mobilization and expansion of stem cells 154
  • Table 3-9: Applications of stem cells 171
  • Table 3-10: Advantages and limitations of methods for optimizing MSCs 183
  • Table 3-11: Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells 189
  • Table 3-12: Growth factors with positive effects on stem cells and applications 191
  • Table 3-13: Examples of drugs that induce granulocytopenia at stem cell level 202
  • Table 3-14: Academic institutes involved in stem cell research 210
  • Table 3-15: Companies involved in stem cell technologies 212
  • Table 4-1: Therapeutic applications of regulatory T cells (T-regs) 229
  • Table 4-2: Various tissue/cell therapy approaches to the treatment of type 1 diabetes 236
  • Table 4-3: Companies involved in cell therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes 252
  • Table 4-4: Major pulmonary disorders potentially treatable by stem cell manipulation 270
  • Table 4-5: Cell-based repair of knee cartilage damage 288
  • Table 4-6: Intraoperative cell therapy 314
  • Table 5-1: Classification of various types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders 320
  • Table 5-2: Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease 359
  • Table 6-1: Cell therapy technologies used for cancer 367
  • Table 6-2: Companies involved in developing cell-based therapies for cancer 403
  • Table 7-1: NSCs-based approaches for neurological disorders 422
  • Table 7-2: Experimental use of immortalized cells for CNS disorders 425
  • Table 7-3: Combination of stem cells and HBO in models of neurological disorders 431
  • Table 7-4: Therapeutic applications of MSCs for neurological disorders 432
  • Table 7-5: Methods for delivering cell therapies in CNS disorders 435
  • Table 7-6: Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy 438
  • Table 7-7: Types of cell used for investigative treatment of Parkinson's disease 443
  • Table 7-8: Status of cell therapies for Parkinson's disease 444
  • Table 7-9: Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage 469
  • Table 7-10: Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke: completed, ongoing and pending 470
  • Table 7-11: Clinical trials with cell-based therapies in neurological disorders (excluding stroke) 510
  • Table 8-1: Listed numbers of ESC lines around the world 521
  • Table 8-2: Stem cell policies around the world 522
  • Table 8-3: European public attitudes about research involving human stem cells 537
  • Table 9-1: Possible adverse reactions and safety issues of cell therapy 543
  • Figures
  • Figure 1-1: Interrelationships of cell therapy to other technologies 32
  • Figure 1-2: Interrelationships of gene, cell and protein therapies 33
  • Figure 1-3: Engineering of RBCs for drug delivery 37
  • Figure 3-1: A simplified biological scheme of embryonic stem Cells 80
  • Figure 3-2: Steps of iPS cell production 115
  • Figure 3-3: hESC-derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer 151
  • Figure 3-4: Flow chart of development of stem cells with potential bottlenecks 217
  • Figure 4-1: Reprograming ESCs/iPSCs cells to β-cells for type 1 diabetes 248
  • Figure 5-1: Ex vivo vs in vivo approaches to regeneration of the heart 320
  • Figure 5-2: hESC-derived cardiomyocytes from laboratory to bedside 334
  • Figure 5-3: Steps in growing a new heart in vitro for transplantation 356
  • Figure 6-1: A scheme of generation and administration of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells 377
  • Figure 6-2: Stem cell transplantation techniques 385
  • Figure 7-1: Stem cells that can give rise to neurons 416
  • Figure 7-2: Scheme of iPSCs for personalized cell therapy of Parkinson disease 452
  • Figure 7-3: Approaches to stem cell therapy in stroke 465

Part II

10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy 6

  • Introduction 6
  • Methods for estimation of cell therapy markets 6
  • Potential markets for cell therapy 7
  • Markets according to technologies 7
  • Stem cell transplants 7
  • Supporting cell technologies 8
  • Blood transfusion market 8
  • Cord blood collection and storage 8
  • Cell therapy and related technologies 8
  • Cell therapy markets according to therapeutic area 8
  • Bone and joint disorders 9
  • Cancer 9
  • Cardiovascular disorders 10
  • Diabetes mellitus 10
  • Liver disorders 11
  • Neurological disorders 11
  • Retinal degenerative diseases market 12
  • Skin and wound care 12
  • Urinary incontinence 12
  • Reconstruction of teeth by stem cell implants 12
  • Market size according to geographical areas 13
  • Unmet market needs in cell therapy 14
  • Drivers of growth of cell therapy markets 14
  • Role of stem cells in regenerative medicine 14
  • Role of cells in markets for artificial organs 15
  • Increase of R&D expense on cell therapy 15
  • Increased used of cell-based drug discovery 15
  • Impact of emerging healthcare trends on cell therapy markets 15
  • Markets for cell therapy tourism 15
  • Involvement of pharmaceutical companies in cell therapy 16
  • Future prospects of cell therapy 16
  • Embryonic stem cell research around the world 16
  • Consortia for ESC research in Europe 17
  • EuroStemCell 17
  • FunGenES 18
  • ESTOOLS 18
  • UK National Stem Cell Network 19
  • Ethical concerns about commercialization of embryonic stem cells 20
  • Education of the physicians 20
  • Public education 20
  • NIH support of stem cell research 20
  • Funding of stem cell research from non-federal sources 21
  • Prospects of venture capital support for stem cell companies 22
  • Cell therapy in the developing countries 23
  • Guidelines for stem cell therapies 24
  • Business strategies 24
  • Formation of networks 25
  • Market potential of autologous vs allogeneic cells 25
  • Future market potential of adult vs embryonic stem cells 26

11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy 28

  • Introduction 28
  • Profiles of selected companies 30
  • Collaborations 347

12. Academic Institutions 357

  • Introduction 357
  • Stem cell center 357
  • Profiles of institutions 358
  • Collaborations 447

13. References 451

Tables

  • Table 10-1: Market size according to cell therapy and related technologies 2013-2023 7
  • Table 10-2: Market size according to therapeutic areas for cell therapy in 2013-2023 9
  • Table 10-3: Cell therapy markets for cardiovascular disorders in 2013-2023 10
  • Table 10-4: Values of cell therapies for neurological disorders in 2013-2023 11
  • Table 10-5: Total cell therapy market in 2013-2023 according to geographical areas 13
  • Table 10-6: Cord blood market according to geographical areas 2013-2023 13
  • Table 10-7: Stem cells transplant market according to geographical areas 2013-2023 13
  • Table 10-8: SWOT Autologous cells vs allogeneic cells 25
  • Table 11-1: Publicly traded cell therapy companies 28
  • Table 11-2: Selected collaborations of cell therapy companies 347
  • Table 12-1: Therapeutic uses of stem cells 365
  • Table 12-2: Commercial collaborations of US academic institutes relevant to stem cells 447

Figures

  • Figure 10-1: Unmet needs in cell therapy 14
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